Home

Two maps on the spread of Christianity

Leave a comment

[Copyright: MacGraw-Hill 1995]
.
Two maps on the Spread of Christianity till the 4th century (the first map) and till 451 (the 2nd map) christian centers, the

More

Site Plan of Caesaraugusta (Roman Saragossa)

Leave a comment

Saragosa

Site Plan of Caesaraugusta  (Roman Saragossa)

More

The emperor’s armour: Bronze statue of Hadrian from the legionary camp at Tel Shalem (Judaea), Israel Museum

Leave a comment

Republication from Following Hadrian

.

A magnificent bronze statue of Hadrian, now on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, was found by chance by an American tourist in Tel Shalem (Beth Shean Valley, Israel) on 25th July 1975 while searching for ancient coins with a metal detector. Tel Shalem was once occupied by a detachment of the Sixth Roman Legion (Legio VI Ferrata). The 50 fragments of this statue were found in a building which stood at the center of the camp, perhaps in the principia (the headquarters tent or building).

Bronze statue of Hadrian, found at the Camp of the Sixth Roman Legion in Tel Shalem, 117–138 AD, Israel Museum, Jerusalem © Carole Raddato

Bronze statue of Hadrian, found at the Camp of the Sixth Roman Legion in Tel Shalem, Israel Museum, Jerusalem
© Carole Raddato

More

Cataphractarii! (3) – The cataphract cavalry in a period of 2,500 years

1 Comment

Continued from Part 2

Mongol 3

Mongol cataphract, 13th century.

.
By Periklis  Deligiannis

More

Cataphractarii! (2) – The cataphract cavalry in a period of 2,500 years

2 Comments

Continued from Part I

.

sassanid cataphract

A superb restoration of a Sassanid  cataphract (credit: Total War: Rome II, Sega).

.
By Periklis  Deligiannis

.

More

Cataphractarii! (I) – The cataphract cavalry in a period of 2,500 years

1 Comment

 

cataphract

The onslaught of a unit of Sassanid or Central Asia Iranian  cataphracts in a marvelous artwork by Mariusz Kozik (credit: Creative Assembly Sega/Mariusz Kozik).

.
By Periklis  Deligiannis

.

The following text is a small part of the Introduction of my study: Kataphraktarii and Clibanarii: Late Roman full-armoured cavalry. Along with it I give a gallery of cataphracts from most of the ethnic and cultural regions in which their use was spread over a period of two and a half millennia.
.

The first cataphracts or clibanarii were rather an invention of the Iranian Saka tribes of the Central Asian steppes – being the ancestors of the Sarmatians, the Scythians, the Dahae and the Massagetae among many others – or the non-Iranian but Indo-European as well Tocharians of the same steppes that is the ancestors of the Wu Sun and the Yuezhi of the Chinese chronicles. The term  cataphract is a Greek word (κατάφρακτος) meaning the ‘fully armoured’ warrior and was adopted by the Romans (catafractarius) while the other almost synonymous Latin term clibanarius is actually the Latinized and originally Iranian term grivpanvar which is possibly analyzed as grivapanabara, meaning the bearer of neck-guard plates being a feature of the early cataphracts. I prefer to use the more correct verbal type kataphraktos which is closer to the original Greek word κατάφρακτος but in this abstract I will use the Latin-originated term cataphract in order not to confuse the reader.

More

Roman military footwear: Bronze caliga from an over life-size statue of a Roman cavalryman

Leave a comment

Republication from Following hadrian (by Carole Raddato)

.

© Carole Raddato

Bronze caliga from a over life-size statue of a Roman cavalryman
© Carole Raddato

.

Caligae were heavy hob-nailed military boots worn by the Roman legionary soldiers, auxiliaries and cavalrymen throughout the Roman Republic and Empire.

More

Roman engineering II: The Roman Temple of Évora (Portugal)

Leave a comment

Republication from Following hadrian (by Carole Raddato)

The Roman Temple of Évora (Templo romano de Évora), also referred to as the Templo de Diana (although there is no basis in fact for this designation) is an ancient temple in the historic city of Évora, Portugal. The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, which was included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

In 57 BC, the city was conquered by the Romans who renamed it Liberalitas Julia and expanded it into a walled town. The temple is believed to have been built around the first century AD and was probably erected in honour of emperor Augustus. It was built in the main public square (forum) of Liberalitas Julia.

The temple has undergone numerous changes throughout history. What remains of this structure today is the podium, almost completely preserved and made of granite blocks, an intact colonnade along its northern facade consisting of six columns, four columns to the east and four columns on its western facade.

The Roman Temple of Évora, overview from the north-western corner, Ebora, Lusitania, Portugal © Carole Raddato

The Roman Temple of Évora, the northern facade consisting of six columns
© Carole Raddato

[image not to  be shown here: visit the original source]

The Roman Temple of Évora
© Carole Raddato

More

The Weapon That Changed History

1 Comment

Republication from the Archaeology Magazine

 

01

Roman legionaries board on a Carthaginian warship during the First Punic War. Artwork by Peter Connolly.

by Andrew Curry

Evidence of Rome’s decisive victory over Carthage is discovered in the waters off Sicily

In his work The Histories, the second-century B.C. Greek historian Polybius chronicles the rise of the Romans as they battled for control of the Mediterranean. The central struggle pits the Romans against their archenemies the Carthaginians, a trading superpower based in North Africa. For 23 years, beginning in 264 B.C., the two rivals fought what became known as the First Punic War.

More

Roman engineering: The Hadrianic aqueduct of Caesarea Maritima, Israel

Leave a comment

Republication from Following hadrian

.

Caesarea Maritima is perhaps one of Israel’s most famous attractions. Its ruins are located by the sea-shore of Israel about half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa. It is the site of one of the most important cities of the Roman World, the capital of the province of Judaea. The city was founded between 22 and 10 BC by Herod the Great (37-4 BC) as an urban centre and harbor on the site of the earlier Straton’s Tower. The city has been populated through the late Roman and Byzantine era. Today, Caesarea is a large and beautiful national park and a fascinating place to visit while exploring the Holy Land.

Herod the Great's palace and circus, Caesarea, Israel © Carole Raddato

Herod the Great’s palace and circus, Caesarea
© Carole Raddato

The Judaean port of Caesarea had no reliable source of fresh water when construction on the city began around 22 BC. King Herod commissioned a raised aqueduct to deliver water from the springs near Shuni, 16 kilometers north-east of Caesarea Maritima. Today, the most impressive part of the Herodian aqueduct (known as the high-level aqueduct I) can be seen on the beach of Caesarea, north of the ancient city.

More

Dutch archaeologists discover the location of Caesar’s battle and massacre on the Tencteri and Usipetes tribes

1 Comment

Republication from the VU University of Amsterdam

96558765

Hundreds of skulls and other bones, considered to belong to the massacred Germanics were found in the excavated location (credit: VU University of Amsterdam).

VU archaeologists discover location of historic battle fought by Caesar in Dutch river area

Earliest known battle on Dutch soil.

At a press conference held on Friday 11 December in the Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam, archaeologist Nico Roymans from the VU Amsterdam announced a discovery that is truly unique for Dutch archaeology: the location where the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar massacred two Germanic tribes in the year 55 BC. The location of this battle, which Caesar wrote about in detail in Book IV of his De Bello Gallico, was unknown to date. It is the earliest known battle on Dutch soil. The conclusions are based on a combination of historical, archaeological, and geochemical data.

Skeletal remains, swords and spearheads
It is the first time that the presence of Caesar and his troops in Dutch territory has been explicitly proven. The finds from this battle include large numbers of skeletal remains, swords, spearheads, and a helmet. The two Germanic tribes, the Tencteri and the Usipetes, originated in the area east of the Rhine and had explicitly appealed to Caesar for asylum. Caesar rejected this request for asylum and ordered his troops to destroy the tribes by violent means. Nowadays, we would label such action genocide.
During the press conference, Roymans described in detail the discoveries made in Kessel (North Brabant) and their historical significance. He also showed weapons and skeletal remains from this battle.

More

Older Entries