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P. Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe

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Republished from Cell.com

 

Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Archeological Sites and Hunter-Gatherer mtDNA Haplogroups

(A) Pre-LGM dispersal of non-African populations, carrying both M and N lineages (hgs R, U, U5, and U2′3′4′7′8′9 belong to the N clade, distinct from the M clade).

(B) Post-LGM re-expansion in Europe while ice sheets retracted.

(C) Late Glacial shift in mtDNA hg frequency.

(D) Holocene hunter-gatherer mtDNA, mainly belonging to hg U5.

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How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [1, 2]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across Eurasia and Australasia [3, 4, 5]; and (2) multiple dispersal, i.e., additional earlier population expansions that may have contributed to the genetic diversity of some present-day humans outside of Africa [6, 7, 8, 9]. Many variants of these models focus largely on Asia and Australasia, neglecting human dispersal into Europe, thus explaining only a subset of the entire colonization process outside of Africa [3, 4, 5, 8, 9].

 

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Forum Romanum: Architecture

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General reconstruction of the Forum Romanum with the temples of the Capitoline in the distant level.
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THE HOPLITE SHIELDS

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vase painti
A  vase  painting  depicting  a  hoplite,  5th  century  BC.  He  is  armed  with  a  bronze  cuirass,  a  hoplite  sword  and  a  hoplite  shield  of  the  Argive  type.  In  the  interior  of  the  hoplite  shield, you  can  see  the  “antilave” («αντιλαβή»,  handle/handgrip),  the  “porpax” («πόρπαξ»,  fastener  for  the  elbow)  and  the  “telamons” («τελαμώνες»,  shoulder  belts)/ (Paris,  Louvre  Museum)

By  Periklis    Deligiannis

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The  Geometric  Period  (11th-8th  centuries  BC)  preceded  the  invention  of  the  hoplite  warfare  and  the  hoplite  phalanx (about  700  BC).  The  shields  of  the  Geometric  period  belonged  to  two  main  types:  the  “Dipylon” type  shield  and  the  “Herzsprung”  type.  The  Dipylon  shield  is  named  after  the  Athenian  Dipylon  gate,  where  a  number  of  pottery  with  depictions  of  that  type  of  shield,  was  discovered.  It  was  a  large  and  long  shield,  covering  the  warrior  from  chin  to  knees.  It  was  made  of  wicker  and  leather,  without  excluding  further  strengthening  of  wooden  parts.  Despite  its  size,  the  Dipylon  shield  was  light  due  to  its  materials.  It  had  a  curved  form  in  order  to  embrace  the  warrior’s  body.  In  the  middle  of  its  surface,  the  Dipylon  shield  had  two  semicircular  notches  for  the  easier  handling  of  the  offensive  weapons (spear  or  sword).  Notches  also  facilitated  the  hanging (suspension)  of  the  Dipylon  shield  on  the  warrior’s  back,  in  order  not  to  restrict  his  elbows  when  he  walked.  The  shield  had  at  least  one  central  handle  for  its  holding  by  the  warrior  in  battle,  and  one  or  more  shoulder  belts,  in  order  to  hang  it  on  his  back  when  not  used.  These  belts  were  called  “telamones” (τελαμώνες).  The  shape  of  the  Dipylon  shield  denotes  its  origins  from  the  famous  Minoan  and  Mycenaean  eight-shaped  shield.  During  the  Greek  Archaic  Era (7th cent – 479  BC),  the  Dipylon  shield  was  made  mostly  of  bronze  and  had  a  smaller  size:  that  is  the  “Boeotian”  type  of  shield,  named  after  Boeotia,  where  it  was  popular.

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A set of arms and armour from Sudan: the influence of Mamluk Egypt on the military equipment of the African hinterland

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Dear friends,

First, a briefing on the disablement of the comments:

Concerning the disablement of the comments on the posts, I had to do so due to the lack of time. Because, for me not to answer to your comments is something that I consider as inappropriate. However when it will be possible again (soon, I believe) I’ll activate the comments .

Thank you so much for your consistent preference to ‘Delving into History’.

Periklis Deligiannis

This set of arms and armour from Sudan denotes the influence of Mamluk Egypt on the military equipment of the African hinterland Muslim states: mail armour, kalkan-type shield, helmet with nose-guard, and straight sword of the 16th or the 17th century from Sudan, which clearly imitate the respective arms and armour of the Mamluks (unknown museum).
In comparison, in the second image I present an Ottoman set of armour, helmet and metal shield identical to those used by the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria (unknown museum).

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Θωρακίσεις και εξαρτύσεις ίππων των Σαμουράι – Μέρος Β΄

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ΣΥΝΕΧΕΙΑ από το Α΄ Μέρος

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Θωρακίσεις και εξαρτύσεις ίππων των Σαμουράι – Μέρος Α΄

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a

[Φίλες και φίλοι,

σχετικά με την απενεργοποίηση των σχολίων στα posts, ήμουν υποχρεωμένος να το πράξω επειδή είναι πλέον πολύ δύσκολο να απαντώ στα σχόλια σας, λόγω αρκετών υποχρεώσεων. Και το θεωρώ κάπως απρέπεια να μην απαντώ στα σχόλια σας. Για τους ίδιους λόγους έχουν μειωθεί κάπως και τα δικά μου κείμενα. Ωστόσο μόλις οι συνθήκες το επιτρέψουν πάλι, θα ενεργοποιήσω τα σχόλια και θα φροντίσω να γράφω περισσότερο.

Σας ευχαριστώ όλους θερμά για την προτίμηση σας στις «Ιστορικές Αναδιφήσεις».

Περικλής Δεληγιάννης

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Οι θωρακίσεις και οι άλλες εξαρτύσεις των ίππων των Σαμουράι είναι εξίσου εντυπωσιακές με τις  θωρακίσεις και εξαρτύσεις των ίδιων των ιππέων. Οι εν λόγω ιαπωνικές θωρακίσεις και εξαρτύσεις αναβάτη και αλόγου κατάγονται από την ηπειρωτική Ασία, από τους νομάδες της ευρασιατικής στέππας οι οποίοι τους μετέδωσαν στους Κινέζους και τους Κορεάτες όταν και εκείνοι ίδρυσαν σώματα ιππικού νομαδικού τύπου, και από τους τελευταίους μεταδόθηκαν στην Ιαπωνία.  Οι γνωστές κινεζικές αυτοκρατορίες και τα κορεατικά βασίλεια έπαιξαν σημαντικό ρόλο σε αυτήν τη μετάδοση. Ωστόσο από την αρχή οι Ιάπωνες εξέλιξαν διαφορετικά τα ηπειρωτικά πρωτότυπα ακολουθώντας μία δική τους ιδιαίτερη τεχνοτροπία, υποθέτω λόγω της νησιωτικής απομόνωσης τους και της μόνιμης τάσης τους προς την αυτάρκεια. Ετσι ανέπτυξαν αποκλειστικά δικούς τους τύπους λεπιδωτών και φολιδωτών θωρακίσεων, αναβολέων, σελών, χαλινών, προμετωπίδων και άλλων αντικειμένων για την άνετη ίππευση και τη προστασία στη μάχη των ίππων τους, τους οποίους φρόντιζαν ιδιαίτερα. Ωστόσο η κινεζική επιρροή είναι εμφανής, ιδιαίτερα στις προμετωπίδες στις οποίες οι Ιάπωνες έδιναν συνήθως μορφή δράκου ειδικά με την κινεζική τεχνοτροπία.

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Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa

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Republication from Wiley Online library

Current fossil, genetic, and archeological data indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa in the late Middle Pleistocene. By the end of the Late Pleistocene, our species was distributed across every continent except Antarctica, setting the foundations for the subsequent demographic and cultural changes of the Holocene. The intervening processes remain intensely debated and a key theme in hominin evolutionary studies. We review archeological, fossil, environmental, and genetic data to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

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Russian scientists use mass spectrometry to ‘look inside’ an ancient Greek amphora

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Republished from MIPT

85875287

Russian scientists have identified the components of the oldest bitumen sample to be found in an ancient vase and made an accurate estimate of its age. In their article in the Journal of Mass Spectrometry, the researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), the Institute for the History of Material Culture, the Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, and the Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) propose a new and more effective approach to organic compound analysis and introduce specially designed software.

Bitumen is a form of petroleum found in natural deposits. Its use dates back to the Stone Age. The word ‘mummy’, for example, derives from the Persian ‘mūm’, or ‘bitumen’, because this substance was used in embalming. The Greeks used bitumen in construction, medicine, and warfare—it is possible that the legendary ‘Greek fire’ was based on bitumen. The oldest amphora filled with bitumen (5ᵗʰ century BCE) was discovered by Russian archaeologists on the Taman Peninsula, a highly volcanically active region (numerous petroleum seeps are located there) and a possible source of the bitumen imported by the Greeks.

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Uniforms of Venezuela (War of Independence 1810-1824) part II

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001

Bolivar crossing the Andes with his army. Note his regular troops on the front.

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This is a collection of more uniforms of Venezuelan officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824.

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Aithiopia (modern Sudan), West.Arabia, Yemen and Egypt during the Early Imperial Roman period

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RE-egypt

This is a very interesting German map on Aithiopia (modern Sudan), West.Arabia, Yemen and Egypt during the Early Imperial Roman period depicting the cities, towns and trading posts, the peoples of this area, the trade roads, the Roman missions and other features.

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Military engineering: J.P. Verboom’s anti-fortification attack system of parallel lines (1687)

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Designs of Jorge Próspero Verboom on an engineering system concerning the envelopment and isolation of an enemy fortress, and mostly a system of parallel lines of attack (and protection of artillery and infantry), 1687. Verboom was a Flemish engineer in the service of the Spanish crown, one of the best of his time. The third plan of his, deals with the design and geometry of a typical fortress with bastions.
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