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Russian scientists use mass spectrometry to ‘look inside’ an ancient Greek amphora

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Republished from MIPT

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Russian scientists have identified the components of the oldest bitumen sample to be found in an ancient vase and made an accurate estimate of its age. In their article in the Journal of Mass Spectrometry, the researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), the Institute for the History of Material Culture, the Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, and the Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) propose a new and more effective approach to organic compound analysis and introduce specially designed software.

Bitumen is a form of petroleum found in natural deposits. Its use dates back to the Stone Age. The word ‘mummy’, for example, derives from the Persian ‘mūm’, or ‘bitumen’, because this substance was used in embalming. The Greeks used bitumen in construction, medicine, and warfare—it is possible that the legendary ‘Greek fire’ was based on bitumen. The oldest amphora filled with bitumen (5ᵗʰ century BCE) was discovered by Russian archaeologists on the Taman Peninsula, a highly volcanically active region (numerous petroleum seeps are located there) and a possible source of the bitumen imported by the Greeks.

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Uniforms of Venezuela (War of Independence 1810-1824) part II

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Bolivar crossing the Andes with his army. Note his regular troops on the front.

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This is a collection of more uniforms of Venezuelan officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824.

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Aithiopia (modern Sudan), West.Arabia, Yemen and Egypt during the Early Imperial Roman period

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RE-egypt

This is a very interesting German map on Aithiopia (modern Sudan), West.Arabia, Yemen and Egypt during the Early Imperial Roman period depicting the cities, towns and trading posts, the peoples of this area, the trade roads, the Roman missions and other features.

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Military engineering: J.P. Verboom’s anti-fortification attack system of parallel lines (1687)

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Designs of Jorge Próspero Verboom on an engineering system concerning the envelopment and isolation of an enemy fortress, and mostly a system of parallel lines of attack (and protection of artillery and infantry), 1687. Verboom was a Flemish engineer in the service of the Spanish crown, one of the best of his time. The third plan of his, deals with the design and geometry of a typical fortress with bastions.
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Oι Νεότουρκοι και το Ολοκαύτωμα των μη μουσουλμανικών κοινοτήτων

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Αναδημοσίευση από  kars1918.wordpress.com

Του Βλάση Αγτζίδη (**)

H  Γενοκτονία των Αρμενίων είναι η γνωστότερη σελίδα από το γενικευμένο και καλά οργανωμένο εγχείρημα του τουρκικού εθνικισμού να εξοντώσει τις μη μουσουλμανικές ομάδες της Οθωμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας ώστε να δημιουργήσει τις συνθήκες διαμόρφωσης καθαρά τουρκικού έθνους-κράτους.


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Οι χριστιανικές κοινότητες των Αρμενίων,  των Ελλήνων της Ανατολής και  των Ασσυροχαλδαίων-Αραμαίων, βίωσαν με τον πλέον δραματικό τρόπο την πολιτική ενός ακραίου εθνικιστικού και  μιλιταριστικού κινήματος. Το γνωστότερο επεισόδιο αυτής της ιστορικής διαδικασίας –όπως γράφτηκε στην αρχή- είναι η γενοκτονία των Αρμενίων.

Μέσα στα όρια της αυταρχικής Οθωμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας, οι Αρμένιοι ανέπτυξαν την εθνική τους ταυτότητα, συνδέθηκαν με τα προοδευτικά κινήματα του καιρού τους και διατύπωσαν πολιτικούς στόχους. Παράλληλα όμως, επηρεάστηκαν και συνδέθηκαν με διεθνή κέντρα που επιζητούσαν την καταστροφή της Αυτοκρατορίας. Ο σκληρός ανταγωνισμός των μεγάλων δυνάμεων (Βρετανία, Ρωσία, Γερμανία, Γαλλία) τα χρόνια 1894-1896, η κυριαρχία του τυραννικού σουλτάνου Αβδούλ Χαμίτ -τον οποίο ο Γλάδστον αποκάλεσε «Ο Μέγας Δολοφόνος» και η διατύπωση των πολιτικών αιτημάτων των Αρμενίων, οδήγησαν στην πρώτη μεγάλη σφαγή του αρμενικού λαού με 300.000 θύματα. Ο Αβδούλ Χαμίτ πίστευε ότι «ο καλύτερος τρόπος να τελειώνουμε με το Αρμενικό Ζήτημα είναι να τελειώνουμε με τους Αρμένιους».

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DNA reveals ancient male population explosions linked to migration and technology

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Republished from w t Sanger institute

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Branch lengths are drawn proportional to the estimated times between successive splits, with the most ancient division occurring ~190 kya. Colored triangles represent the major clades, and the width of each base is proportional to one….

largest ever study of global genetic variation in the human Y chromosome has uncovered the hidden history of men. Research published today in Nature Genetics reveals explosions in male population numbers in five continents, occurring at times between 55 thousand and four thousand years ago.

The study, led by Dr Chris Tyler-Smith of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, analysed sequence differences between the Y chromosomes of more than 1200 men from 26 populations around the world using data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project.

The work involved 42 scientists from four continents.

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Delphi: Architecture, part II

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Treasure temple of the Siphnian islanders at Delphi
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Some more digital and artwork architectural reconstructions of temples in Apollo’s Sanctuary at Delphi, Phokis (Central Greece).

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Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasians

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Republication from cell.com

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Highlights

  • Recent admixture events involved outside groups at the edges of West Eurasia
  • Admixture within Europe tended to fall within the European Migration Period
  • West Eurasian genetic structure today is likely to have been maintained by admixture

Summary

Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [ 1–7 ].

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Fortification plans of Fort San Diego, Acapulco

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Plan of Fort San Diego, Acapulco, Mexico in 1776, designed by Spanish engineers a few years after 1600 (Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar, Madrid).

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Uniforms of Venezuela (War of Independence 1810-1824) part I

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Officer of the Corps of Engineers. Artwork by Lafita Portabella.
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This is a collection of uniforms of Venezuelan officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824, that is the soldiers of the “Libertador” Gen. Simon Bolivar. Bolivar himself was born in Venezuela but he must be rather considered as a Pan-Spanish-American historical figure just as his Argentinean counterpart Gen. José Francisco de San Martín, the other main figure of the Wars of Independence. Together they share the honour of liberating much of the continent.
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Οι Μουσκετοφόροι της Γαλλικής Βασιλικής Φρουράς

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Αναδημοσίευση από   L’Art du duel

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Του Γεώργιου Ε. Γεωργά προπονητή ξιφασκίας, εκπαιδευτή της Ελληνικής Πολεμικής Τέχνης του Παμμάχου,  Research Scholar της Συντεχνίας των Ελεύθερων Ξιφομάχων.

Οι Μουσκετοφόροι του Βασιλιά είναι γνωστοί στην Ελλάδα ως σωματοφύλακες. Ο λόχος τους ήταν επίλεκτοι πολεμιστές της Γαλλίας έχοντας ένδοξες στιγμές στα πεδία των μαχών.

Ο λόχος των Μουσκετοφόρων του Βασιλιά ιδρύθηκε το 1622 από τον Λουδοβίκο τον ΙΓ’. Η Μουσκετοφόροι ήταν εξέλιξη των καραμπινιέρων ελαφρών ιππέων της Βασιλικής φρουράς.

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