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Neolithic massacres: Conflicts in Neolithic Europe were more fierce that has been known to date

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Republication from  sciencedaily.com/

Source:University of Basel

Violent conflicts in Neolithic Europe were held more brutally than has been known so far. This emerges from a recent anthropological analysis of the roughly 7000-year-old mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten by researcher of the Universities of Basel and Mainz. The findings, published in the journal PNAS, show that victims were murdered and deliberately mutilated.

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Lost in combat?

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Republication from phys.org/

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These are the battlefield remains from the layer where objects were found at the site near the Tollense river in Weltzin. (Credit: Stefan Sauer)

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Recent archaeological investigations in the Tollense Valley led by the University of Göttingen, the State Agency for Cultural Heritage in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the University of Greifswald have unearthed a collection of 31 unusual objects. Researchers believe this is the personal equipment of a Bronze Age warrior who died on the battlefield 3,300 years ago. This unique find was discovered by a diving team headed by Dr. Joachim Krüger, from the University of Greifswald, and seems to have been protected in the river from the looting, which inevitably followed fighting. The study was published in Antiquity.

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The Real Assassin’s Creed

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Republication from HeritageDaily

by HeritageDaily

The word “Assassin” is a term that has been used to describe a fedayeen group within the Nizari Ismailis State that formed when followers of Nizarism split within Ismailism, a branch of Shia Islam.

The true origins of the word has been debated for centuries, with one such theory believing that “assassin” has roots in “hashshāshīn” meaning hashish smokers/users.

The first known usage of the term hashshāshīn has been traced back to 1122CE when the Fatimid caliph al-Āmir employed it in derogatory reference to the Syrian branch of the Nizaris Ismailis.

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Zopyros’s heavy gastraphetes

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Detailed diagrams of Zopyros’s heavy gastraphetes (γαστραφέτης) by E. W. Marsden: general plan, side-elevation, front-elevation. The gastraphetes was an ancient Hellenic invention that nowadays is usually described as a crossbow. But actually, unlike the Roman and medieval European crossbow which

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How contemporary conflicts resemble the medieval wars in Scandinavian areas

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Republication from www.hf.uio.no ( University of Oslo)

“King Sverre’s march over the Vosse mountains” by Peter Nicolai Arbo (1862). Sverre was King of Norway from 1184 to 1202. Picture: Wikimedia Commons

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There are many ways in which to understand the new wars of today. One way is to look at the wars that took place in medieval times.

Most wars since 1989 have not been fought between states. The divisions associated with classical types of warfare – between soldiers and civilians, soldiers and criminals, war and peace – are not that clear anymore. Such as the present situation in Afghanistan.

In recent years, there has been a major international discussion among political scientists and anthropologists about how to understand new types of wars that have arisen since the Cold War.

The classical understanding of the term “civil war” is often imprecise when wars are fought across national borders. Instead, the term “new wars” has become more common among many experts and researchers.

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Stone-throwing catapult of Isidoros of Abydos

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Detailed diagrams of the Hellenic stone-throwing catapult of Isidoros of Abydos, by Marsden: general plan, side-elevation, front-elevation, cross-section (through center of A, K, Λ, M and N), inside elevation of N before fitting.

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