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Some interesting maps on the crusades and the states of the cruaders in Syria c.1100 AD.

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THE HEPHTHALITES (WHITE HUNS) AND THE GENESIS OF THE AVARS

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By  Periklis    Deligiannis1

an  Avar  horseman,  armed  with  a  composite  bow  and  a  nomad  cavalry  spear  (copyright:  V. Vuksic).

The  first  European  mention  of  the  Hephthalites  or  White  Huns  comes  from  the  Byzantine  chronicler  Procopius,  a  contemporary  of  Emperor  Justinian.  Procopius  recorded  related  comments  of  a  Byzantine  envoy  to  the  Sassanids,  who  traveled  to  eastern  Iran.  The  Chinese  chronicles  mention  the  Hephthalites  as  “Ye-ti-i-li-do”  or  simpler  as  “Ye-ta”.   It  seems  that  the  Hephthalites  were  originally  a  Hunnic  tribe,  which  was  mixed  deeply  with  the  Iranians  and  Tocharians  of  central  Asia, concluding  as  a  mixed  hunnic-iranian-tocharian  people.  This  explains  the  possibility  of  adopting  around  500  AD  the  Iranian  language  and  several  Iranian  personal  names.

The  powerful  Hephthalites  managed  to  establish  two  nomadic  “empires”  in  central  Asia,  eastern  Iran  and  India.  In  390,  their  relatives,  the  Khionite  Huns  (known  to  the  Romans  as  “Kidarites”)  paved  the  way  for  their  expansion,  when  they  defeated  the  Sassanid  Persians  and  settled  in  Bactria  and  Sogdiana  (roughly  modern  Uzbekistan  and  northern  Afghanistan).  In  420-427  AD,  the  Hephthalites  unleashed  from  their  Central  Asian  cradle,  murderous  raids  in  Persia  reaching  the  city  of  Ragai  (modern  Tehran),  until  they  were  defeated  overwhelmingly  by  the  Sassanids  (427).  But  they  came  back  and  in  454  managed  to  defeat  the  Sassanids,  intensifying  again  their  raids  in  Iran.  In  464,  new  Hephthalite  raids  forced  the  Sassanian  King  Phiruz  to  deal  with  them  in  a  series  of  wars.  The  wars  ended  in  475  with  a  peace  treaty,  which  provided  for  an  annual  payment  of  ransom  by  the  Sassanids  to  the  Hephthalites.  Meanwhile,  in  468  the  Sassanids  attacked   the  Khionite/Kidarite  Huns  slaying  them  en  masse.  The  Hephthalites  took  advantage  of  the  destruction  of  the  threatening  Khionites  and  expelled  their  remnants  from  Bactria-Sogdiana,  which  they  annexed  (473-475).  Continue reading

A set of arms and armour from Sudan: the influence of Mamluk Egypt on the military equipment of the African hinterland

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Dear friends,

First, a briefing on the disablement of the comments:

Concerning the disablement of the comments on the posts, I had to do so due to the lack of time. Because, for me not to answer to your comments is something that I consider as inappropriate. However when it will be possible again (soon, I believe) I’ll activate the comments .

Thank you so much for your consistent preference to ‘Delving into History’.

Periklis Deligiannis

This set of arms and armour from Sudan denotes the influence of Mamluk Egypt on the military equipment of the African hinterland Muslim states: mail armour, kalkan-type shield, helmet with nose-guard, and straight sword of the 16th or the 17th century from Sudan, which clearly imitate the respective arms and armour of the Mamluks (unknown museum).
In comparison, in the second image I present an Ottoman set of armour, helmet and metal shield identical to those used by the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria (unknown museum).

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New research on Alfred the Great

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Republished from The Conversation

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Aerial view of the Burghal Hidage site of Wallingford with the Thames in partial flood. Outline of the Saxon ramparts and ‘Alfredian’ streetplan is clear. Image courtesy of the Environmental Agency, Author provided

By Stuart Brookes

Senior Research Associate in Archaeology, UCL

The Last Kingdom – BBC’s historical drama set in the time of Alfred the Great’s war with the Vikings – has returned to our screens for a second series. While most attention will continue to focus on the fictional hero Uhtred, his story is played out against a political background where the main protagonist is the brooding and bookish mastermind Alfred the Great, vividly portrayed in the series by David Dawson.

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Contributions to Slingshot, Journal on ancient and medieval warfare

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slingshot_cover_309

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[Slingshot 308, September-October 2016]

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Some time now I’m contributing to Slingshot, the research Journal of the Society of Ancients (published since 1964), specialized in ancient and medieval warfare, tactics and wargaming.

Many thanks for this to Paul Innes and Nick Harbud.

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Periklis Deligiannis

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The Medieval Somme: forgotten battle that was the bloodiest fought on British soil

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[Note by P. Deligiannis:  I apologize for the somewhat “mass” republishing of articles but lately I somewhat neglected my blog. I’ll try  to make amends for it]

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Republication from the Conversation

Richard Caton Woodville’s The Battle of Towton.
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Professor of Medieval History, University of Exeter

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A Battle of the Somme on British soil? It happened on Palm Sunday, 1461: a day of fierce fighting in the mud that felled a generation, leaving a longer litany of the dead than any other engagement in the islands’ history – reputed in some contemporary reports to be between 19,000 – the same number killed or missing in France on July 1 1916 – and a staggering 38,000.

The battle of Towton, fought near a tiny village standing on the old road between Leeds and York, on the brink of the North York Moors, is far less known than many other medieval clashes such as Hastings or Bosworth. Many will never have heard of it.

 

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