Biology, Caucasus, Europeans, Genetics, Palaeolithic, Prehistory
Republication from nature.com
Figure 1 : Genetic structure of ancient Europe.
We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ∼45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ∼25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ∼3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.
Anthropology, Bronze Age, Europe, European, European Union, Europeans, Genetics, Indo-European
Republication from the University of Leicester
Bronze Age European warriors
University of Leicester researchers discover a European male-specific population explosion that occurred between 2000 and 4000 years ago
- Researchers determined DNA sequences from the Y chromosomes of 334 men belonging to 17 populations from Europe and the Middle East
- Study shows that almost two out of three (64%) modern European men belong to just three young paternal lineage
- Male-specific population expansion was widespread, and surprisingly recent, focusing interest on the Bronze Age
Geneticists from the University of Leicester have discovered that most European men descend from just a handful of Bronze Age forefathers, due to a ‘population explosion’ several thousand years ago.
Anthropology, Archaeology, Europe, Europeans, Indo-European, linguistics
Republication from the Annual Review of Linguistics
The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives
Vol. 1: 199-219 (Volume publication date January 2015)
David W. Anthony1 and Don Ringe2
1Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York
2Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Archaeological evidence and linguistic evidence converge in support of an origin of Indo-European languages on the Pontic-Caspian steppes around 4,000 years BCE. The evidence is so strong that arguments in support of other hypotheses should be reexamined.
Figure 1 Wheel terms found in Indo-European language branches. Modified with permission from Anthony (1995).
Alaska, America, Anthropology, Biology, Canada, Europe, Europeans, Genetics, native Americans, Prehistory
Republication from University of Utah News
PHOTO CREDIT: Ben Potter, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
This map shows the location of the Upward Sun River site in Alaska where the remains of two infants were found in an 11,500-year-old burial. A new University of Utah analysis shows the infants belong to two genetic groups or lineages known as B2 and C1. The maps shows other Native American groups throughout the Americas that are part of the same lineages.
University of Utah scientists deciphered maternal genetic material from two babies buried together at an Alaskan campsite 11,500 years ago. They found the infants had different mothers and were the northernmost known kin to two lineages of Native Americans found farther south throughout North and South America.
By showing that both genetic lineages lived so far north so long ago, the study supports the “Beringian standstill model.” It says that Native Americans descended from people who migrated from Asia to Beringia – the vast Bering land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska – and then spent up to 10,000 years in Beringia before moving rapidly into the Americas beginning at least 15,000 years ago.
“These infants are the earliest human remains in northern North America, and they carry distinctly Native American lineages,” says University of Utah anthropology professor Dennis O’Rourke, senior author of the paper set for online publication the week of Oct. 26 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Anthropology, Biology, Europe, Europeans, Genetics, Indo-European, Russia, steppe peoples, Yamnaya
Republished from biorxiv
We estimate mixture proportions using a method that gives unbiased estimates even without an accurate model for the relationships between the test populations and the outgroup populations (Supplementary Information section 9). Population samples are grouped according to chronology (ancient) and Yamnaya ancestry (present-day humans).
Anthropology, Europe, Europeans, Genetics, Prehistory
REPUBLICATION from HORIZON RESEARCH MAGAZINE
The last ice age is associated with a major demographic bottleneck in Europe. Image: Shutterstock/ Esteban De Armas
In some cases, small bands of potentially as few as 20 to 30 people could have been moving over very large areas, over the whole of Europe as a single territory, according to Professor Ron Pinhasi, principal investigator on the EU-funded ADNABIOARC project.
This demographic model is based on new evidence that suggests populations were much smaller than is generally thought to be a stable size for healthy reproduction, usually around 500 people. Such small groupings may have led to reduced fitness and even extinctions.
‘As an archaeologist and anthropologist, I was quite shocked to see how limited, how small the population numbers were. You know, shockingly small,’ said Prof. Pinhasi, based at University College Dublin, Ireland.
‘I think that what happened, it’s on a catastrophic level of demography for a long time in human evolution,’ he said.