America, Aztecs, Brazil, Canada, Genetics, Incas, Latin America, Maya, Mexico, native Americans, Peru, Spanish America, United States, USA
Reblogged/ Source: news.ku.edu/2015/07/21/ancestors-native-americans-migrated-single-wave-23000-years-ago-genetic-study-finds
LAWRENCE — A new genome-scale study that includes a University of Kansas anthropological geneticist has determined ancestors of present-day Native Americans arrived in the Americas as part of a single-migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23,000 years ago.
Later migrations of Aleuts and Eskimos occurred approximately 9,000 and 4,000 years ago.
“Using coalescence analyses, not just using one piece of DNA, but the entire genome, we find that the earliest someone could have come to the Americas was 23,000 years ago,” said Michael Crawford, head of KU’s Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology. “This study also pretty well does in the whole idea that gene flow from Europe contributed to the original migration of present-day Native Americans.”
Crawford is a co-author on the study, and the journal Science has published its results online. The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen headed the international research team, which included co-authors Eske Willerslev, a Lundbeck Foundation professor at the center in Copenhagen; Maanasa Raghavan, a postdoctoral researcher at the center; Yun Song, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, statistics and integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley; and David Meltzer, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, among others.
To more accurately pinpoint the account of how and when modern humans populated the Americas from Siberia, the team generated genomic data from several present-day and past Native American and Siberian populations. This included an analysis of the DNA of the fossil known as Kennewick Man, found along the Columbia River in Washington State in 1996.
“This is not just mitochondrial DNA,” Crawford said. “It’s shown on the entire genome that’s been sequenced.”
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Espana, Mexico, native Americans, New Spain, Peru, Spain, Spanish, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela
By Periklis Deligiannis
European knights of the 15th century. The heavy cavalry of the Conquistadores belonged to this type. The native Central and South American warriors could do very little against these armoured and mounted war machines.
Viceroyalties and Audiencias, 16th Century
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the initial Spanish colonies in the Americas were divided administratively in two viceroyalties: the Viceroyalty of New Spain, comprising the Caribbean, Mesoamerican, North American and Pacific colonies of Spain, and the Viceroyalty of Peru comprising her South American colonies.
Each Viceroyalty was divided in audiencias. The audiencia was a high court of justice exercising judicial, political and military power in the Spanish colonies.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was divided in the audiencias of Nueva Galicia (modern NW Mexico and SW USA), Mexico (modern Central Mexico and the Caribbean coast of the US), Guatemala (Chiapas, Yucatan and modern Central America), Hispaniola (Cuba and Florida) and Santo Domingo (Haiti/Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico and all the lesser islands of the Caribbean, plus “Little Venice” i.e. modern Venezuela). The Viceroyalty of New Spain included also the Philippines and all the other Spanish islands of the Pacific.
Andean civilizations, Bolivia, Cusco, Inca, Inca army, Inca Empire, Inca warfare, medieval warfare, Military history, Peru, Pre-Columbian America, Quechua, South America
By P. Deligiannis
Α bloody conflict between warriors of the pre-Columbian Andean area, in a painting by the Belgian artist Jean Torton. The uniformity of clothing is conventional and did not actually exist, at least before the Inca empire. The other items of clothing and weaponry are generally valid. Note the mace with the copper star head, probably the most popular weapon at the time of the Incas (copyright: Jean Torton).
An Introduction to the Ηistory of the Incas HERE.
The lack of arable land and the aggression of the neighboring tribes forced the founder of the dynasty of the Incas, Manco Capac, to lead the Inca tribe (a tribe of the Quechua group) from their home village Paqari Τampu, in search of a new homeland. Eventually the Incas invaded the fertile valley of Cuzco, where they attacked the inhabitants of the village and expelled them. From Cuzco, the Incas began to raid neighboring tribes and villages, making ultimately several of them their tributary subjects. Thus it was created the first kingdom of the Incas. The successors of Manco, Sinchi Roca and Lloque Yupanqui, are listed by the Incan tradition as peaceful rulers who did not add new conquests in the kingdom. However new conditions that emerged, led to its expansion. According to a theory, these conditions were associated with climate change in the central Andes during the 14th century, that brought about a slight decrease in rainfall in the region. The fertility of the valley of Cuzco is largely dependent on rainfall, so it is estimated that there was a significant decline in agricultural production, with some areas possibly deserted. The Incas had to deal with the crisis by annexing more arable land or water resources for irrigation. This situation led the new Inca ruler Mayta Capac – a tall and aggressive youth as he is described by the tradition – in new campaigns. At the beginning of his reign, the Incas began using water resources belonging to the territory of a neighboring tribe. The opponent warriors defended their lands against the Incas, leading to the start of a war. Mayta Capac’s warriors were the final winners. They killed many of their enemies, looted their homes, annexed a part of their territory and forced the survivors to pay tax.
Andean civilizations, Angus McBride, Cuzco, Inca, Inca Empire, medieval warfare, Military topics, Pachacuti, Peru, Quechua, Quechua languages, South America
The Inca imperial army on the march (Source unknown – please inform me if you know the copyright owner of this artwork)
The Inca Empire was the most extensive pre-Columbian state of America, including the western 2/3rds of the area of modern Peru, western (mountainous) Bolivia, most of Ecuador, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. It comprised an area of 1,000,000 sq. km. and a population of around 6,000,000-20,000,000 around AD 1520, according to various modern estimates. At the same time, the plateau of Mexico had 25,000,000 inhabitants, of whom the 2/3rds (about 16,000,000) were subjects of the Aztecs. The Incan army numbered 100,000-200,000 warriors in normal conditions but in an a state of emergency many more could be mobilized. The Inca state is known in western sources and in modern historiography as the “Empire of the Incas”, but its inhabitants called it “Tawantinsuyu”, meaning the “Land of Four quarters’. This term meant the administrative division of the state into four districts/regions: the “Chinchasuyu” (North), the “Collasuyu” (South), the “Cuntisuyu” (West) and the “Antisuyu” (East). The Inca capital Cuzco, in modern Peru, was the “imperial” metropolis of South America. The Inca empire included over 150 subjugated tribes who spoke at least twenty different languages, which belonged to four major ethno-linguistic families and some lesser. The central region of the state was inhabited by the Quechua peoples (ethno-linguistic group) while the Aymara peoples lived in the south of them. The Peruvian coast was inhabited by the tribes of the Chimu Group. In the territories north of the Quechua lived the almost primitive tribes Uru. During the rule of the Incas, they tried to impose their own Quechua language as the universal language of their empire in order to achieve greater consistency, resulting in “quechuanizing” many subjugated peoples. This is the reason of the striking modern distribution of 10,000,000 Quechua-speaking Indians from northern Ecuador to northwestern Argentina. The dispersion of the Aymara is also great. The chronology of the reign of the Inca emperors before Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-1471) is highly questionable and practically impossible to restore. Continue reading