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Ancestors of Native Americans migrated in single wave, genetic study finds

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Reblogged/ Source: news.ku.edu/2015/07/21/ancestors-native-americans-migrated-single-wave-23000-years-ago-genetic-study-finds

LAWRENCE — A new genome-scale study that includes a University of Kansas anthropological geneticist has determined ancestors of present-day Native Americans arrived in the Americas as part of a single-migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23,000 years ago.

Later migrations of Aleuts and Eskimos occurred approximately 9,000 and 4,000 years ago.

“Using coalescence analyses, not just using one piece of DNA, but the entire genome, we find that the earliest someone could have come to the Americas was 23,000 years ago,” said Michael Crawford, head of KU’s Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology. “This study also pretty well does in the whole idea that gene flow from Europe contributed to the original migration of present-day Native Americans.”

Crawford is a co-author on the study, and the journal Science has published its results online. The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen headed the international research team, which included co-authors Eske Willerslev, a Lundbeck Foundation professor at the center in Copenhagen; Maanasa Raghavan, a postdoctoral researcher at the center; Yun Song, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, statistics and integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley; and David Meltzer, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, among others.

To more accurately pinpoint the account of how and when modern humans populated the Americas from Siberia, the team generated genomic data from several present-day and past Native American and Siberian populations. This included an analysis of the DNA of the fossil known as Kennewick Man, found along the Columbia River in Washington State in 1996.

“This is not just mitochondrial DNA,” Crawford said. “It’s shown on the entire genome that’s been sequenced.”

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FROM PROVINCES TO STATES: the Spanish Viceroyalties, audiencias and provinces in America

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By  Periklis  Deligiannis

european aggresion

European knights of the 15th century. The heavy  cavalry of the Conquistadores belonged to this type. The native Central and South American warriors could do very little against these armoured and mounted war machines.

Viceroyalties_Audiencias_16th_Ce

Viceroyalties and Audiencias, 16th Century

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the initial Spanish colonies in the Americas were divided administratively in two viceroyalties: the Viceroyalty of New Spain, comprising the Caribbean, Mesoamerican, North American and Pacific colonies of Spain, and the Viceroyalty of Peru comprising her South American colonies.
Each Viceroyalty was divided in audiencias. The audiencia was a high court of justice exercising judicial, political and military power in the Spanish colonies.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was divided in the audiencias of Nueva Galicia (modern NW Mexico and SW USA), Mexico (modern Central Mexico and the Caribbean coast of the US), Guatemala (Chiapas, Yucatan and modern Central America), Hispaniola (Cuba and Florida) and Santo Domingo (Haiti/Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico and all the lesser islands of the Caribbean, plus “Little Venice” i.e. modern Venezuela). The Viceroyalty of New Spain included also the Philippines and all the other Spanish islands of the Pacific.

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INCA WARFARE: THE FIRST PHASE OF THE INCAN CONQUESTS

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By  P.  Deligiannis

Inca  Peruvian battle1

Α  bloody  conflict  between  warriors  of   the  pre-Columbian  Andean  area,  in  a  painting  by  the  Belgian  artist  Jean  Torton. The  uniformity  of  clothing   is  conventional  and  did  not  actually  exist,  at  least  before  the  Inca  empire.  The  other  items  of  clothing  and  weaponry  are  generally  valid.  Note  the  mace  with  the  copper  star  head,  probably  the  most  popular  weapon  at  the  time  of  the  Incas  (copyright: Jean  Torton).

An  Introduction  to  the  Ηistory  of  the  Incas  HERE.

The  lack  of  arable  land  and  the  aggression  of  the  neighboring  tribes  forced  the  founder  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Incas,  Manco  Capac,  to  lead  the  Inca  tribe  (a  tribe  of  the  Quechua  group)  from  their  home  village  Paqari Τampu,  in  search  of  a  new  homeland.  Eventually  the  Incas  invaded  the  fertile  valley  of  Cuzco,  where  they  attacked  the  inhabitants  of  the  village  and  expelled  them.  From  Cuzco,  the  Incas  began  to  raid  neighboring  tribes  and  villages,  making  ultimately  several  of  them  their  tributary  subjects.  Thus  it  was  created  the  first  kingdom  of  the  Incas.  The  successors  of  Manco,  Sinchi Roca  and  Lloque Yupanqui,  are  listed  by  the  Incan  tradition  as   peaceful  rulers  who  did  not  add  new  conquests  in  the  kingdom.  However  new  conditions  that  emerged,  led  to its  expansion.  According  to  a  theory,  these  conditions  were  associated  with  climate  change  in  the  central  Andes  during  the  14th  century,  that  brought  about  a  slight  decrease  in  rainfall  in  the  region.  The  fertility  of  the  valley  of  Cuzco  is  largely  dependent  on  rainfall,  so  it  is  estimated  that  there  was  a  significant  decline  in  agricultural  production,  with  some  areas  possibly  deserted.  The  Incas  had  to  deal  with  the  crisis  by  annexing  more  arable  land  or  water  resources  for  irrigation.  This  situation  led  the  new  Inca  ruler  Mayta Capac – a  tall  and  aggressive  youth  as  he  is  described  by  the  tradition – in  new  campaigns.  At  the  beginning  of  his  reign,  the  Incas  began  using  water  resources  belonging  to  the  territory  of  a  neighboring  tribe.  The  opponent  warriors  defended  their  lands  against  the  Incas,  leading  to  the  start  of  a  war.  Mayta  Capac’s   warriors  were  the  final  winners.  They  killed  many  of  their  enemies,  looted  their  homes,  annexed  a  part  of  their  territory  and  forced  the  survivors  to  pay  tax.

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ΑΝ INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE INCAS

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ersg

The Inca imperial  army on the march (Source unknown – please inform me if you know the copyright owner of this artwork)

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The  Inca  Empire  was  the  most  extensive  pre-Columbian  state  of  America,  including  the  western  2/3rds  of  the  area  of  modern  Peru,  western  (mountainous)  Bolivia,  most  of  Ecuador,  northern  Chile  and  northwestern  Argentina.  It  comprised  an  area  of  1,000,000  sq.  km.  and  a  population  of  around  6,000,000-20,000,000  around  AD  1520,  according  to  various  modern  estimates.  At  the  same  time,  the  plateau  of  Mexico  had  25,000,000  inhabitants,  of  whom  the  2/3rds  (about  16,000,000)  were  subjects  of  the  Aztecs.  The  Incan  army  numbered  100,000-200,000  warriors  in  normal  conditions  but  in  an  a  state  of  emergency  many  more  could  be  mobilized.  The  Inca  state  is  known  in  western  sources  and  in  modern  historiography  as  the  “Empire  of  the  Incas”,  but  its  inhabitants  called  it  “Tawantinsuyu”,  meaning  the  “Land  of  Four  quarters’.  This  term  meant  the  administrative  division  of  the  state  into  four  districts/regions:  the  “Chinchasuyu”  (North),  the  “Collasuyu”  (South),  the  “Cuntisuyu”  (West)  and    the  “Antisuyu”  (East).  The  Inca  capital  Cuzco,  in  modern  Peru,  was  the  “imperial”  metropolis  of  South  America.  The  Inca  empire  included  over  150  subjugated  tribes  who  spoke  at  least  twenty  different  languages,  which  belonged  to  four  major  ethno-linguistic  families  and  some  lesser.  The  central  region  of  the  state  was  inhabited  by  the  Quechua  peoples (ethno-linguistic  group)  while  the  Aymara  peoples lived  in  the  south of  them.  The  Peruvian  coast  was inhabited  by  the  tribes  of  the  Chimu  Group.  In  the  territories  north  of  the  Quechua  lived  the  almost  primitive  tribes  Uru.  During  the  rule  of  the  Incas,  they  tried  to  impose  their  own  Quechua  language  as  the  universal  language of their  empire  in  order  to  achieve  greater  consistency,  resulting  in  “quechuanizing”    many  subjugated  peoples.  This  is  the  reason  of   the  striking  modern  distribution  of  10,000,000  Quechua-speaking  Indians   from  northern  Ecuador  to  northwestern  Argentina.  The  dispersion  of  the  Aymara  is  also  great.  The  chronology  of  the  reign  of  the  Inca  emperors  before  Pachacuti  Inca  Yupanqui  (1438-1471)  is  highly  questionable  and  practically  impossible  to  restore.  Continue reading

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