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Κωνσταντινούπολη, Βασιλίς πόλεων

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Η παρούσα ανάρτηση αφορά τις εντυπωσιακές αναπαραστάσεις της Κωνσταντινούπολης, της ‘Βασιλίδος πόλεων’, από τον σημαντικό Γάλλο καλλιτέχνη  Antoine Helbert. Εντυπωσιάσθηκα ιδιαίτερα από τις διατομές του και τις απόψεις από αέρος. Οι ακόλουθες αναπαραστάσεις περιλαμβάνουν πέντε απόψεις της Πόλης από αέρος (οι οποίες απεικονίζουν μεταξύ πολλών άλλων κτισμάτων, τον Ιππόδρομο, την Αγία Σοφία κ.α.), δύο διατομές της Αγίας Σοφίας (από τις οποίες η μία είναι λεπτομέρεια της άλλης), διατομές του Βουκολέοντος ήτοι του παράκτιου αυτοκρατορικού παλατίου, και του Περιστυλίου του Μεγάλου Παλατίου, τα τείχη της Πόλης το 1204 όταν οι Σταυροφόροι είχαν στρατοπεδεύσει μπροστά τους, και τέλος τη σκληρή μάχη εναντίον των Οθωμανών στην πύλη του Αγίου Ρωμανού το 1453.

© Τα πνευματικά δικαιώματα των ακολούθων αναπαραστάσεων ανήκουν στον Antoine Helbert.

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Constantinople, Queen of cities –part IΙ

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© Credit/copyright of the following representations belongs to Antoine Helbert.

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Constantinople, Queen of cities – part I

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Today I’ m posting the impressive representations of Constantinople, the Byzantine ‘Queen of cities’, by Antoine Helbert, a French artist. I was impressed mostly by his cross-sections and aerial views. The following representations include five aerial views of Constantinople (depicting among many other features the Hippodrome, the cathedral of Aghia Sophia and many others), two cross-sections of Aghia Sophia (the one being a detail of the other), cross-sections of Boukoleon being the royal palace by the sea, and the Peristylion of the central grand palace and its hall, the walls of the city in 1204 when the Crusaders camped in front of them, and finally the battle at the gate of St. Romanos in 1453 when the city was besieged and captured by the Ottomans.

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© Credit/copyright of the following representations belongs to Antoine Helbert.

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BREAKING THE ETERNITY OF ROME: THE GOTHS AGAINST THE ROMAN EMPIRE

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By  Periklis    Deligiannis

 Goths

Earlier  related  article:  BIRTH  OF  THE  STORMERS  OF  ROME:  ON  THE  GOTHIC  ETHNOGENESIS  AND  MIGRATIONS

After  the  carnage  of  the  Roman  army  in  the  Battle  of  Adrianople  (AD  378),  the  new  emperor  Theodosius  checked  as  possible  the  Visigoths  until  AD  382  when  he  came  to  an  agreement  with  them,  formally  accepting  their  settlement  in  the  Roman  territory  as  foederati  (dependent  allies).  The  Goths  joined  en  masse  the  Eastern  Roman  army  which  was  decimated  after  the  defeat  at  Adrianople.  They  soon  acquired  considerable  political  influence  in  the  court  of  Constantinople.  It  is  characteristic  that  a  Goth,  the  famous  Gainas  (Gaenas),  came  up  to  all  the  offices  –  one  by  one  –  of  the  military  hierarchy  and  ultimately  tried  to  seize  the  imperial  throne,  but  without  success.  The  Eastern  Romans  (Early  Byzantines)  realized  the  mortal  danger  of  the  Goths  that  was  threatening  the  Empire  and  reacted  violently.  An  intense  anti-Germanic  feeling  prevailed  in  Constantinople  and  in  a  few  years  most  Goths  had  been  expelled  from  the  administration  and  the  military.  Later,  the  Byzantines  settled  many  Goths  in  Asia  Minor  (in  the  territory  of  the  later  thema  of  Opsikion)  who  were  gradually  Hellenized  and  were  called  Gotthograeci  (Gotho-Greeks).
Until  recently  the  modern  historians  used  to  believe  that  the  historical  Visigoths  were  the  descendants  of  the  Western  Goths  of  Gutthiunta  and  that  the  Ostrogoths  originated  from  the  Eastern  Goths  of  Hermanaric.  During  the  last  decades  it  was  ascertained  that  these  correlations  were  not  correct.  The  Visigoth  tribal  union  was  formed  around  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Adrianople,  possibly  in  the  eve  of  the  battle,  when  the  Thervingi  combined  forces  with  a  portion  of  the  Greuthungi  who  had  escaped  from  the  Hunnish  yoke  and  with  other  barbarian  groups.  The  Ostrogoth  tribal  union  was  formed  a  few  decades  later  (around  AD  400)  when  the  rest  scattered  Greuthungi  and  other  Gothic-German  and  Sarmatian  groups  (namely  the  Goths  of  the  Amali  Dynasty  and  later  the  Goths  of  Theuderic-Strabo,  of  Radagaesus,  some  Alan  groups  and  others)  joined  forces.  However,  most  modern  books,  studies  and  disquisitions  continue  to  use  anachronistically  the  ethnic  terms  Visigoths  and  Ostrogoths  for  the  historical  events  before  378.

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BIRTH OF THE STORMERS OF ROME: ON THE GOTHIC ETHNOGENESIS AND MIGRATIONS

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 By  Periklis  Deligiannis

Scandinavians

These  Scandinavian  warriors  are  almost  identical  with  their  Gothic  relatives  because  of  their  unity  of  culture.  The  weaponry  of  the  Scandinavians/Vikings  was  in  fact  originated  from  the  arms  and  armor  of  their  Germanic  kinsmen  in  the  main  European  continent , especially  from  those  of  the  Eastern  Teutonic  tribes.

The  Goths  lived  and  fought  in  most  parts  of  the  European  continent.  From  the  dense  frosty  forests  of  Scandinavia  and  contemporary  Poland,  and  the  frigid  Baltic  Sea,  to  the  warm  civilized  countries  of  Greece,  Italy  and  the  Mediterranean,  and  from  the  vast  grasslands  of  Ukraine  and  the  Black  Sea  to  the  Iberian  Atlantic  coast,  their  martial  migration  course  is  a  truly  unparalleled  feat.  Their  Vandal  brothers  managed  to  colonize  North  Africa,  while  other  Gothic  branches  settled  in  Britain (Jutes) and  Asia  Minor.  The  History  of  the  Goths  is  one  of  the  most  exciting  in  general  World  History,  while  their  admirable  martial  art  brought  the  Dawn  of  Chivalry  in  Europe.

The  modern  theories  on  the  ethnogenesis  of  the  Goths  are  divided.  The  best  known  view (supported  mainly  by  modern  Teutonic  historians  and  scholars)  considers  them  of  pure  Germanic  origins,  originating  from  Gotland  (“Land  of  the  Goths“),  i.e. modern  South-Central  Sweden  and  the  adjacent  long  island  of  the  same  name.  This  view  is  supported  by  a  number  of  medieval  sources.  However,  there  is  also  the  theory  (supported  mainly  by  modern  Slav  historians  and  scholars)  that  the  Goths  and  the  Vandals  were  indigenous  non-Germanic  peoples  of  modern  Poland,  who  adopted  their  Germanic  language  from  a  Teutonic  ethnic  element  sparsely  settled  in  their  area.

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THE BYZANTINE (EASTERN ROMAN) RHOMPHAIA

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 By  Periklis  Deligiannis

Byzantine Kosovo

Modern researchers of medieval military history often wonder what was the nature of the Byzantine weapon called ‘rhomphaia’? The rhomphaia (or rhomphaea) of Antiquity was a weapon of the Thracians, which consisted of a long straight or slightly curved sickle-shaped blade mounted on a long wooden shaft. If the rhomphaia was sickle-shaped, the cutting edge was located on the inner (concave) side of the blade. Specifically the curved rhomphaia belonged to the group of spears and swords with scythe blade which included the kopis, the machaira, the falcata, the falx and others which were used by various peoples of the ancient Mediterranean that is to say the Iberians, Celtiberians, Greeks, Thracians, Etruscans, Lycians, Carians, Lydians, Phrygians, Dacians and others. Their original source is unknown and sometimes the researchers try to locate it. Our opinion is that they are products of polygenesis.
The ancient Greeks and then the Romans were using units of Thracian rhomphaioforoi (rhomphaia-bearers) allies and mercenaries, but they themselves never adopted this weapon. But until the Byzantine period, the Thracians were ethnologically absorbed to the Roman and then to the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) ethnic environment by becoming Latin-speaking north of the Balkan Ridge and Greek-speaking south of it, loosing their own ethnic identity. Thus the rhomphaioforoi combatants were ethnically incorporated to the Romans and the Greeks through Latinization and Hellenization respectively. During the Byzantine Period, the word rhomphaia appears in the Byzantine military terminology posing the aforementioned question.

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Byzantine Sword type “Joshua”

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[Reblogged-Republication  from  another  site]

Out on an ancient greek: Byzantium in the fourth century AD, was founded Constantinople, New Rome, which is elevated to the imperial capital by Constantine I, the Empire of “Byzantine.”   In 1204 the Crusaders, occupy and plunder the city holding it until 1261, year in which the “Byzantine”, expelled the Crusaders regained the reconstituted and the Empire. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople. The empire “Byzantine” ceases to exist.     The role of ‘ Eastern Roman Empire , in European history is not sufficiently inclusive and is often treated superficially and summary.     Constantinople, from its foundation until the time of his brutal sacking the Crusaders, has allowed the economic, political and cultural center of Europe. The New Rome, resisting the onslaught of many people who pressed on their borders, impegnandone armies, protected, unintentionally, throughout the West from further invasions that you would go to add to all those who already faced and which undoubtedly would have changed , over the centuries, the current political scenario, economic as well as customs and practices. The Byzantine Empire flourished during the same period as Western Europe was tried by the narrowness and violence. The Eastern Roman Empire was for many years the best army, the best tactics, the best generals.     However, contrary to its culture and its influence, the fruits of civilization “Byzantine” are described briefly, and often denigrated.     Apparently we dwell only on what is wrong and corrupt, the empire was at some time in its history. The same epithet “Byzantine” is in fact an insult.     names with which they are defined things are important to not distort our interpretation of reality.     Persons Empire “Byzantine” had no idea of being “Byzantine “. They felt themselves as the successors of the authentic Roman world: the Romans living in Romania (not to be confused with the current Romania). In the inner regions of Constantinople, where Greek was the language to predominate on the Latin of ancient Rome, the idea of citizenship and identity Roman had involved a large part of the population. The citizens of the Greek language were proud of being Romans: Romans were called in Latin, in greek Romaioi. It is thought that an ambassador be called Byzantine greek, roman instead, it meant being elegantly insulted.        Romaioi The word called, in the end, the population of the Greek-speaking Roman Empire.     This, for us, is a very important point to understand the Byzantine culture, including weapons.     Always keep in mind that they, even with many changes, they felt the successors of the ancient Romans. They were the hinge between the West and the East, their weapons have been influenced by both civilizations were not immune from the influences of the lands that have dominated, blending everything together and creating a footprint that we can typically define “Byzantine.”     We do not, in our museums, Byzantine swords, at least not intended as typically Byzantine.     Ares Academy has decided to replicate a “spathion” making use of the only sources available that could enable replication, and in the case the specific iconography. Building a sword from a iconography is definitely a business, arduous and fraught with pitfalls.     will document below, why our choices, first of all the iconography of reference.     A comparison, it was noticed that the iconography which is located in the Monastery of Hosios Loukas in Greece, namely that taken into consideration, it is devoid of artistic license but made ​​with great detail in depicting-tion of the subject and armaments.

  

It is in fact a Byzantine fresco of the twelfth century, where it is shown, Joshua, the warrior of faith, with a straight sword.
carefully The fresco depicts the typical arms of a Byzantine warrior heavily armed of the X-XII centuries. Wearing a “klivanion” laminated with protection for the arms and around the waist the “pteruges” and is armed with a spear “kontarion” and a “spathion” . One thing we noticed, unusual for a biblical figure and religious, is the use of cover garments.
‘s helmet is tied to his neck, with what appears to be cloth.

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BYZANTINE TACTICS AND STRATEGY AGAINST WESTERN EUROPEAN ARMIES

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Byzantine vs NormanBy  Periklis    Deligiannis

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The  Byzantines  used  to  call  generally  “Franks“,  “Celts”,  “Latins”  etc,  various  Western  European  peoples  that  they  encountered  at  first  in  Italy  and  then  in  the  Balkan  Peninsula.  Finally  they  encountered  them  as  Crusaders  in  the  walls  of  Constantinople  in  1204,  losing  this  decisive  battle.  But  in  1261,  the  Byzantines  managed  to  reclaim  their  capital.

At  first  the  Byzantine  Empire  confronted  in  Italy  the  Franks  (the “genuine”  Franks  of  Gaul  and  Germany)  and  the  Longobards  (known  later  as  Lombards),  especially  during  the  6th-8th  centuries  AD.  The  fighting  tactics  and  strategy  of  these  Germanic  peoples,  which  could  not  be  compared  with  the  ‘scientificity’  of  the  Byzantine/East  Roman  tactics,  were  characterized  largely  by  the  vehemence  and  fighting  spirit  of  their  barbarian  ancestors,  but  also  by  the  lack  of  efficient  organization.

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