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A 19th century map of Roman Hispania

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A map of the 19th century, of Roman Hispania, that is the modern states of Spain and Portugal.

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Urban plan of ancient Sparta

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The urban plan of Sparta in a detailed diagram in German. Actually, there was no urban plan of Sparta before the Late Hellenistic Age, as the ‘conservative’ Spartans were not interested in changing their traditional way of life, since the Archaic Age. They believed that their city did not even need defensive walls because in their own words “the chests of Sparta’s warriors are her walls”.

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Αρχαία ελληνικά αλφάβητα

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Ενας σημαντικός πίνακας από γερμανικό βιβλίο με μερικά μόνο από τα αρχαία ελληνικά αλφάβητα. Από αριστερά προς τα δεξιά, παρουσιάζονται: More

Late Byzantine warrior 14th century

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A fine Byzantine hagiography of Saint Mercurios, early 14th century. His arms and armour are typical Byzantine of the Late period (church of Saint Clementios, Ochris).

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Swordsmanship of the Bronze Age: new perceptions from Experiments

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Republication from springer.com

 

a Group IV rapier (658 mm, 565.0 g). b Kemenczei type S Vollgriffschwert (595 mm, 938.2 g). c Wilburton type sword (562 mm, 511.5 g). d Carp’s Tongue type sword (745 mm, 761.5 g). e Ewart Park type sword, the two nearest the bottom were used for the actualistic tests (top 658 mm, 701.4 g; middle 696 mm, 753.0 g; bottom 695 mm, 752.1 g)

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Abstract

The article presents a new picture of sword fighting in Middle and Late Bronze Age Europe developed through the Bronze Age Combat Project. The project investigated the uses of Bronze Age swords, shields, and spears by combining integrated experimental archaeology and metalwork wear analysis. The research is grounded in an explicit and replicable methodology providing a blueprint for future experimentation with, and wear analysis of, prehistoric copper-alloy weapons. We present a four-step experimental methodology including both controlled and actualistic experiments. The experimental results informed the wear analysis of 110 Middle and Late Bronze Age swords from Britain and Italy. The research has generated new understandings of prehistoric combat, including diagnostic and undiagnostic combat marks and how to interpret them; how to hold and use a Bronze Age sword; the degree of skill and training required for proficient combat; the realities of Bronze Age swordplay including the frequency of blade-on-blade contact; the body parts and areas targeted by prehistoric sword fencers; and the evolution of fighting styles in Britain and Italy from the late 2nd to the early 1st millennia BC.

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