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Palintonon (ballista) heavy catapult

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Detailed diagrams of a gigantic palintonon (παλίντονον), around 334 BC (siege of Halicarnassos), probably by E.W. Marsden. The palintonon was a Hellenic heavy catapult, mostly stone-throwing, which was constructed in various scales (from just heavy to enormous). It was invented and intensively used by the Greeks in the early or mid-4th century BCE but it was soon adopted by the Carthaginians, the Romans and other ancient states. It became a ‘beloved’ weapon for the Republican and Imperial Romans: they called it ‘ballista’, but the correct initial version was ‘ballistra’ (βαλλίστρα), also a Greek term from the verb ‘βάλλω’ that is “to shoot”.

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The Nile Delta during New Kingdom Era

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An interesting map of the Delta of the Nile during the New Kingdom Era of the ancient Egyptian history. Note the ancient and the present shoreline.

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Ένα άγνωστο έγκλημα: Η απαγόρευση εξόδου των ελληνικών πληθυσμών από τη Μικρά Ασία….

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Αναδημοσίευση από  kars1918.wordpress.com

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Ένα από τα πλέον άγνωστα σημεία του μικρασιατικού δράματος υπήρξε η απαγόρευση εξόδου των ελληνικών και των υπόλοιπων χριστιανικών πληθυσμών από την κυβέρνηση Γούναρη-Πρωτοπαπαδάκη.
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ioniki-politistiki-stegi-ilioupolis-2013Από τις αρχές του 1922 είχε αρχίσει να συζητιέται σε υψηλά κυβερνητικά κλιμάκια η εκκένωση της Μικράς Ασίας από τον ελληνικό στρατό. Παρ′ όλα αυτά, όμως, η ελληνική κυβέρνηση αποφασίζει να απαγορεύσει στον ελληνικό πληθυσμό να εγκαταλείψει τη Μικρά Ασία. Η απόφαση αυτή πήρε τη μορφή του νόμου 2870/1922, ο οποίος προέβλεπε αυστηρές πειθαρχικές και χρηματικές ποινές, στην περίπτωση σύλληψης πλοίων που θα μετέφεραν πληθυσμό.
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Ο Νόμος 2870/1922 ψηφίστηκε τον Ιούλιο, λίγο πριν την κατάρρευση του μετώπου. Και αυτό, ενώ είχαν απορρίψει την Άνοιξη του 1922 τις προτάσεις της οργάνωσης Μικρασιατική Άμυνα (επικεφαλής ο μητροπολίτης Χρυσόστομος) για ανακήρυξη Ιωνικού Κράτους, απεμπλοκή από τις συμμαχικές υποχρεώσεις, δημιουργία μιας ντε φάκτο νέας πραγματικότητας, δημιουργία ντόπιου στρατού που με την ελλαδική βοήθεια θα δημιουργούσε γραμμή άμυνας για να σταματήσει τον κεμαλικό στρατό.

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Ammunition, grenades and other weaponry of the two World Wars cause contamination in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

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Republication from balticsea-report.eu

Site of the North Sea coastline.

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Millions of tons of old ammunition and poison gas grenades lie at the bottom of the North and Baltic Seas – dangerous relics of the two world wars. After all, the old munitions rust and release their toxic ingredients. Removal is dangerous, complex and expensive. This is why Fraunhofer researchers are working with salvage companies to develop a robotic system that enables semi-automatic disposal.

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How contemporary conflicts resemble the medieval wars in Scandinavian areas

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Republication from www.hf.uio.no ( University of Oslo)

“King Sverre’s march over the Vosse mountains” by Peter Nicolai Arbo (1862). Sverre was King of Norway from 1184 to 1202. Picture: Wikimedia Commons

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There are many ways in which to understand the new wars of today. One way is to look at the wars that took place in medieval times.

Most wars since 1989 have not been fought between states. The divisions associated with classical types of warfare – between soldiers and civilians, soldiers and criminals, war and peace – are not that clear anymore. Such as the present situation in Afghanistan.

In recent years, there has been a major international discussion among political scientists and anthropologists about how to understand new types of wars that have arisen since the Cold War.

The classical understanding of the term “civil war” is often imprecise when wars are fought across national borders. Instead, the term “new wars” has become more common among many experts and researchers.

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The Temple of Trajan on the Upper Acropolis of Pergamon

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Republication from followinghadrian.com

Today we celebrate the anniversary of the accession of Trajan to the imperial throne (28 January 98 AD). As a tribute, here is a selection of images from the Temple of Trajan at Pergamon, an ancient Greek city in Aeolis.

The Temple of Trajan (Trajaneum) was one of the most spectacular structures built on the upper acropolis of Pergamon. It is situated at the highest point of the acropolis and is the only building that is truly Roman. Its construction started around 114 AD during the reign of Trajan but was completed after his death during the rule of Hadrian. Both Emperors were worshipped here.

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