America, Anthropology, Canada, Caucasoids, Chukchi, DNA, Eskimos, Genetics, Indians, Mongoloids, native Americans, Russia, Siberia, USA
Republication from Pub Med
[maps added by the republisher]
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb;108(2):193-204.
Nonmetric and metric traits were studied in cranial series representing prehistoric and modern populations of America and Siberia. Frequencies of the infraorbital pattern type II (longitudinal infraorbital suture overlaid by the zygomatic bone) are universally lower in Amerindians than in Siberians. The os japonicum posterior trace, too, is much less frequent in America than in Siberia. The only two Siberian groups with an almost Amerindian combination are late third to early second millennium BC populations from Okunev and Sopka, southern Siberia. The multivariate analysis of five nonmetric facial traits and ten facial measurements in 15 cranial series reveals two independent tendencies.
Alaska, America, Anthropology, Biology, Canada, Europe, Europeans, Genetics, native Americans, Prehistory
Republication from University of Utah News
PHOTO CREDIT: Ben Potter, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
This map shows the location of the Upward Sun River site in Alaska where the remains of two infants were found in an 11,500-year-old burial. A new University of Utah analysis shows the infants belong to two genetic groups or lineages known as B2 and C1. The maps shows other Native American groups throughout the Americas that are part of the same lineages.
University of Utah scientists deciphered maternal genetic material from two babies buried together at an Alaskan campsite 11,500 years ago. They found the infants had different mothers and were the northernmost known kin to two lineages of Native Americans found farther south throughout North and South America.
By showing that both genetic lineages lived so far north so long ago, the study supports the “Beringian standstill model.” It says that Native Americans descended from people who migrated from Asia to Beringia – the vast Bering land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska – and then spent up to 10,000 years in Beringia before moving rapidly into the Americas beginning at least 15,000 years ago.
“These infants are the earliest human remains in northern North America, and they carry distinctly Native American lineages,” says University of Utah anthropology professor Dennis O’Rourke, senior author of the paper set for online publication the week of Oct. 26 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
America, Aztecs, Brazil, Canada, Genetics, Incas, Latin America, Maya, Mexico, native Americans, Peru, Spanish America, United States, USA
Reblogged/ Source: news.ku.edu/2015/07/21/ancestors-native-americans-migrated-single-wave-23000-years-ago-genetic-study-finds
LAWRENCE — A new genome-scale study that includes a University of Kansas anthropological geneticist has determined ancestors of present-day Native Americans arrived in the Americas as part of a single-migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23,000 years ago.
Later migrations of Aleuts and Eskimos occurred approximately 9,000 and 4,000 years ago.
“Using coalescence analyses, not just using one piece of DNA, but the entire genome, we find that the earliest someone could have come to the Americas was 23,000 years ago,” said Michael Crawford, head of KU’s Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology. “This study also pretty well does in the whole idea that gene flow from Europe contributed to the original migration of present-day Native Americans.”
Crawford is a co-author on the study, and the journal Science has published its results online. The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen headed the international research team, which included co-authors Eske Willerslev, a Lundbeck Foundation professor at the center in Copenhagen; Maanasa Raghavan, a postdoctoral researcher at the center; Yun Song, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, statistics and integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley; and David Meltzer, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, among others.
To more accurately pinpoint the account of how and when modern humans populated the Americas from Siberia, the team generated genomic data from several present-day and past Native American and Siberian populations. This included an analysis of the DNA of the fossil known as Kennewick Man, found along the Columbia River in Washington State in 1996.
“This is not just mitochondrial DNA,” Crawford said. “It’s shown on the entire genome that’s been sequenced.”
America, Britain, British, Canada, Canadian Military, Canadian Military History Gateway, France, French, Irish, Military history, Renaissance warfare, United kingdom
By Periklis Deligiannis
A Governmental Web site with plenty of material that has really impressed me is the Canadian Military History Gateway, and especially its Online Reference Books under the general title ‘Canadian Military Heritage’. Materials on that web site were produced and/or compiled by the Canadian Department of National Defence and various partners, namely Rene Chartrand and Serge Bernier who wrote the texts and a group of renowned military illustrators: G.A. Embleton, Eugène Lelièpvre, Michel Pétard, David Rickman, Ron Volstad and others (I apologize for not mentioning all of them, due to lack of time).
The site also includes numerous photographs of classical paintings, drawings and diagrams of forts, battlefields, weapons, maps, statues, portraits and anything else related to Canadian Military History. Enjoy it!
Below are some illustrations and photographs of the site with their captions. Τhe captions were written by Rene Chartrand and Serge Bernier (Chartrand wrote the texts refereeing to the period AD 1000-1871 and Bernier the texts of the years 1872-2000):
Grenadier of the French Guyenne regiment (left) and a corporal from the Béarn regiment (right), circa 1756
America, American War of Independence, Britain, British, British Army, England, Indians, Kentucky, Long rifle, Military history, Ottawa, Pennsylvania, U.S., United States
A Huron or Ottawa warrior, 18th century. He is armed with a curved club and an American long rifle, an acquisition of trade or warfare (artwork by Don Troiani).
By Periklis Deligiannis
The Europeans (British and French) who colonized North America in the 17th to 18th centuries were forced to adapt to the martial art of a ‘primitive’ and ‘savage’ environment which was lost from Europe since Late Antiquity or the Early Middle Ages. The Native American (Indian) who was their main rival, unfortunately for them, had not read Grotius and Vattel, the founders of the rules of the noble and ‘civilized’ warfare (corresponding to the subsequent Treaty of Geneva) with which the Europeans of the 17th and 18th centuries complied. The Native American had his own original weapons and his own methods of war, the deadly warfare of the forest. Of course he did not know the pitched battles or the attack at the sound of the trumpet. The Indian bow unlike the European harquebus (and afterwards the musket) was silent, accurate, and able to unleash fast repeated arrowshots, even in wet weather (when the wick and the gunpowder of the harquebus/musket dampened and made it useless).