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Maya culture territory was much vaster than known, thousands of newly discovered constructionsreveal

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Republication from Washington Post

by Cleve R. Wootson Jr. February 3 at 3:59 PM Email the author

This digital 3-D image provided by Guatemala’s Mayan Heritage and Nature Foundation, PACUNAM, shows a depiction of the Maya archaeological site at Tikal in Guatemala created using lidar aerial mapping technology.  (Canuto & Auld-Thomas/PACUNAM via AP)

Archaeologists have spent more than a century traipsing through the Guatemalan jungle, Indiana Jones-style, searching through dense vegetation to learn what they could about the Maya civilization that was one of the dominant societies in Mesoamerica for centuries.

But the latest discovery — one archaeologists are calling a “game changer” — didn’t even require a can of bug spray.

Scientists using high-tech, airplane-based lidar mapping tools have discovered tens of thousands of structures constructed by the Maya: defense works, houses, buildings, industrial-size agricultural fields, even new pyramids. The findings, announced Thursday, are already reshaping long-held views about the size and scope of the Maya civilization.

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Uniforms of Argentina (War of Independence 1810-1824)-part II

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Trooper of the Minones de Cataluna.
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This is the second part of a collection of Argentinean officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824, that is the standing troops of the independent United Provinces of Rio de la Plata as well as the Argentinean troops of Gen. José Francisco de San Martín who gained independence for Chile and most of Peru.
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Uniforms of Argentina (War of Independence 1810-1824) -part I

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General Don Jose de San Martin, Liberator of Chile and most of Peru.
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This is a collection of uniforms of Argentinean officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824, that is the standing troops of the independent United Provinces of Rio de la Plata as well as the Argentinean troops of Gen. José Francisco de San Martín who gained independence for Chile and most of Peru.

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Uniforms of Venezuela (War of Independence 1810-1824) part II

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001

Bolivar crossing the Andes with his army. Note his regular troops on the front.

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This is a collection of more uniforms of Venezuelan officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824.

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Uniforms of Venezuela (War of Independence 1810-1824) part I

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01

Officer of the Corps of Engineers. Artwork by Lafita Portabella.
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This is a collection of uniforms of Venezuelan officers and regular troops during the Spanish-American Wars of Independence 1810-1824, that is the soldiers of the “Libertador” Gen. Simon Bolivar. Bolivar himself was born in Venezuela but he must be rather considered as a Pan-Spanish-American historical figure just as his Argentinean counterpart Gen. José Francisco de San Martín, the other main figure of the Wars of Independence. Together they share the honour of liberating much of the continent.
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Collateral relatives of Amerindians among the Bronze Age populace of Siberia?

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Republication from Pub Med

siberia map[maps added by the republisher]

Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb;108(2):193-204.

Abstract

Nonmetric and metric traits were studied in cranial series representing prehistoric and modern populations of America and Siberia. Frequencies of the infraorbital pattern type II (longitudinal infraorbital suture overlaid by the zygomatic bone) are universally lower in Amerindians than in Siberians. The os japonicum posterior trace, too, is much less frequent in America than in Siberia. The only two Siberian groups with an almost Amerindian combination are late third to early second millennium BC populations from Okunev and Sopka, southern Siberia. The multivariate analysis of five nonmetric facial traits and ten facial measurements in 15 cranial series reveals two independent tendencies.

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