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Napoleon’s vision for a new imperial Rome

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Republication from  thehistoryblog.com

Napoleon’s forces occupied Rome twice. The first time was in February 1798 when General Louis Alexandre Berthier invaded the Papal States and Rome, for the first time since antiquity, was declared a republic, one of multiple “sister republics” established by Revolutionary France under the aegis of the Directory. The republic lasted barely a year (the Directory would follow it into the grave before 1799 was out) before the Kingdom of Naples invaded the city and reestablished the Papal States. On February 2nd, 1808, the French army under General Alexandre de Miollis (who also fought in the American Revolutionary War) took Rome again. He remained as governor of the former Papal States until Napoleon’s exile to Elba in 1814.

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A detailed map of ancient South Italy

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A detailed map of ancient South Italy. Actually these are the districts “designed” at emperor Augustus’ reign, thereby

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A detailed map of ancient Northern Italy

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A detailed map of ancient Northern Italy. Note the extent of the Celtic colonization in the Po Valley. Actually a large part of the Venetia district was

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A detailed map of the Punic wars in Italy and Africa

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This is a detailed map of the Punic wars in Italy and Africa depicting the major land and sea battles, cities and towns involved, and the invasion of Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago in Italy that almost cost Rome her own existence. The third major theatre of the military operations of the Punic Wars was Spain.
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Four ways in which Leonardo da Vinci was ahead of his time

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Republication from The Conversation

 

The prototype design of Da Vinci’s “tank”

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Leonardo da Vinci is generally recognised as one of the great figures of the Renaissance and one of the greatest ever polymaths. As the world marks the 500th anniversary of his death, it’s important to look at some of the ways in which he showed that – as well as being a painter, sculptor and engineer – he was a thinker who was way ahead of his time.

Engineering – Dr Hywel Jones

Leonardo da Vinci is renowned as much for his inventions as his works of art, studies of architecture and anatomical drawings. The documents that survive show us his ideas for a wide range of devices. They include some of the first concepts for gliders, helicopters, parachutes, diving suits, cranes, gearboxes and many types of weapons of war. Many of these may be seen in use today, having taken the best part of 400 years to become practical realities.

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