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Ancient states and tribes in the south-west Fertile Crescent, 9th-8th centuries BC, especially Israel and Judah kdms

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An interesting map of ancient kingdoms, city-states and tribes in the area of south-west Fertile Crescent, 9th-8th centuriesBC. It is supposed to present specifically the kdms of Israel and Judah, but another interesting feature is
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Crusader Military engineering: The Templar Fortress of Tartous

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Republication  from Militaryarchitecture.com

6546549Plan of Tartous citadel and fortified city.

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Although largely famous today for its role as a Templar fortress during the time of the Crusades, the site had been equally renowned in antiquity for its strategic and military importance. Tartous was originally founded by the Phoenicians to complement the more secure but the less accessible settlement on the island of Arwad. For a long time it served a secondary role to Arwad, itself a major centre in Seleucid and Roman times. As a matter fact its classical name of Ataradus (meaning ‘anti-Aradus’ or ‘the town facing Aradus’ or Arwad) reflected this secondary role.

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