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Ancestors of Native Americans migrated in single wave, genetic study finds

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Reblogged/ Source: news.ku.edu/2015/07/21/ancestors-native-americans-migrated-single-wave-23000-years-ago-genetic-study-finds

LAWRENCE — A new genome-scale study that includes a University of Kansas anthropological geneticist has determined ancestors of present-day Native Americans arrived in the Americas as part of a single-migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23,000 years ago.

Later migrations of Aleuts and Eskimos occurred approximately 9,000 and 4,000 years ago.

“Using coalescence analyses, not just using one piece of DNA, but the entire genome, we find that the earliest someone could have come to the Americas was 23,000 years ago,” said Michael Crawford, head of KU’s Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology. “This study also pretty well does in the whole idea that gene flow from Europe contributed to the original migration of present-day Native Americans.”

Crawford is a co-author on the study, and the journal Science has published its results online. The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen headed the international research team, which included co-authors Eske Willerslev, a Lundbeck Foundation professor at the center in Copenhagen; Maanasa Raghavan, a postdoctoral researcher at the center; Yun Song, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, statistics and integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley; and David Meltzer, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, among others.

To more accurately pinpoint the account of how and when modern humans populated the Americas from Siberia, the team generated genomic data from several present-day and past Native American and Siberian populations. This included an analysis of the DNA of the fossil known as Kennewick Man, found along the Columbia River in Washington State in 1996.

“This is not just mitochondrial DNA,” Crawford said. “It’s shown on the entire genome that’s been sequenced.”

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ENGINEERING PATIENTLY A GLOBAL EMPIRE: The HAPSBURG EXPANSION-PART II

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 Lepanto 1571

The  Battle  of  Lepanto  (1571)  was  a  great  naval  victory  of  the  Habsburgs  against  the  Ottoman  Turks.

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By  Periklis    Deligiannis

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Eventually  Joanna  (Juana)  was  left  the  only  heir  to  the  Spanish  throne,  and  she  and  Philip  became  the  essential  rulers  of  the  Spanish  Empire  after  the  death  of  Isabella  in  1504  (her  father,  Ferdinand  of  Aragon,  had  no  formal  rights  to  the  throne  of  Castile,  i.e.  the  bigger  kingdom).  Their  son,  Charles  of  Habsburg,  the  future  Charles  V,  was  meant  to  hold  the  greatest  inheritance  of  thrones  and  territories  in  Europe  and  overseas.  In  1506  Philip  the  Handsome  died,  and  in  1507  Joanna  was  found  unable  to  rule  due  to  mental  illness  and  was  removed  from  the  throne.  Her  father,  Ferdinand,  ruled  Castile  and  Aragon  as  a  regent  until  his  grandson  Charles  come  of  age.  The  two  federated  Iberian  kingdoms  remained  officially  segregated  until  Charles  later  joined  and  assimilated  them  into  the  Kingdom  of  Spain  (1516).  Thus  the  Habsburgs  absorbed  the  Castilian  dynasty  of  Trastamara  (both  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  were  Castilians)  as  it  had  happened  with  the  Burgundian  dynasty.

 Harquebusiers

A  fine  representation  of  Hapsburg  Spanish  harquebusiers  of  the  1st  half  of  the  17th  cent. (copyright:  Adrian G Vzon)

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ENGINEERING PATIENTLY A GLOBAL EMPIRE: The HAPSBURG EXPANSION-PART I

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By  Periklis    Deligiannistercio
A  Spanish  tercio  in  a  modern  artwork (source:  Desperta  Ferro).  The  Spanish  army  was  the  strongest  European  army  of  the  mid  16th  century,  belonging  to  the  Hapsburgs.
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Charles  V  Hapsburg  was  the  most  powerful  European  monarch  of  the  first  half  of  the  16th  century.  The  Hapsburg  family/dynasty  (known  also  as  Habsburg)  was  able  to  expand  rapidly  its  territories  and  to  become  possibly  the  strongest  dynasty  ever  in  the  thrones  of  Europe,  in  a  unique  way:  not  so  much  through  waging  wars  and  conquests  but  mainly  through  dynastic  marriages  and  choosing  spouses  for  their  brood,  who  would  be  classified  today  as  “very  wealthy  brides.”  Their  dowries  were  not  simply  money  and  wealth  but  thrones,  kingdoms  and  the  treasures  that  accompanied  them.  But  this  policy  of  the  Hapsburg  dynasty  does  not  reduce  the  competence  and  the  fighting  ability and  spirit  of  the  Austrian-Hapsburg  imperial  army,  who  was  one  of  the  strongest  and  most  effective  in  European  history.  The  immense  Hapsburg  Empire  had  to  be  supported  by  an  army  of  a  similar  level,  mostly  in  quality.  In  the  period  that  this  article  is  referred  to,  the  Hapsburgs  controlled  not  only  the  Austrian  army,  but  a  “multitude”  of  several  European  military  forces  (mercenaries  in  a  great  percentage)  and  mostly  an  imperial  army  stronger  than  the  Austrian,  the  Spanish  one.

Harquebusier by Francisco Galiano

Α  modern  representation  of  a  harquebusier  of  the  1st  half  of  the  17th  cent. (copyright: Francisco Galiano).

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