America, Aztecs, Brazil, Canada, Genetics, Incas, Latin America, Maya, Mexico, native Americans, Peru, Spanish America, United States, USA
Reblogged/ Source: news.ku.edu/2015/07/21/ancestors-native-americans-migrated-single-wave-23000-years-ago-genetic-study-finds
LAWRENCE — A new genome-scale study that includes a University of Kansas anthropological geneticist has determined ancestors of present-day Native Americans arrived in the Americas as part of a single-migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23,000 years ago.
Later migrations of Aleuts and Eskimos occurred approximately 9,000 and 4,000 years ago.
“Using coalescence analyses, not just using one piece of DNA, but the entire genome, we find that the earliest someone could have come to the Americas was 23,000 years ago,” said Michael Crawford, head of KU’s Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology. “This study also pretty well does in the whole idea that gene flow from Europe contributed to the original migration of present-day Native Americans.”
Crawford is a co-author on the study, and the journal Science has published its results online. The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen headed the international research team, which included co-authors Eske Willerslev, a Lundbeck Foundation professor at the center in Copenhagen; Maanasa Raghavan, a postdoctoral researcher at the center; Yun Song, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, statistics and integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley; and David Meltzer, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, among others.
To more accurately pinpoint the account of how and when modern humans populated the Americas from Siberia, the team generated genomic data from several present-day and past Native American and Siberian populations. This included an analysis of the DNA of the fossil known as Kennewick Man, found along the Columbia River in Washington State in 1996.
“This is not just mitochondrial DNA,” Crawford said. “It’s shown on the entire genome that’s been sequenced.”
Austria, Aztecs, Espana, European Union, France, French, Germany, Habsburg, Hapsburg, Ottomans, Renaissance, Spain, Spanish, Turks
The Battle of Lepanto (1571) was a great naval victory of the Habsburgs against the Ottoman Turks.
By Periklis Deligiannis
Eventually Joanna (Juana) was left the only heir to the Spanish throne, and she and Philip became the essential rulers of the Spanish Empire after the death of Isabella in 1504 (her father, Ferdinand of Aragon, had no formal rights to the throne of Castile, i.e. the bigger kingdom). Their son, Charles of Habsburg, the future Charles V, was meant to hold the greatest inheritance of thrones and territories in Europe and overseas. In 1506 Philip the Handsome died, and in 1507 Joanna was found unable to rule due to mental illness and was removed from the throne. Her father, Ferdinand, ruled Castile and Aragon as a regent until his grandson Charles come of age. The two federated Iberian kingdoms remained officially segregated until Charles later joined and assimilated them into the Kingdom of Spain (1516). Thus the Habsburgs absorbed the Castilian dynasty of Trastamara (both Ferdinand and Isabella were Castilians) as it had happened with the Burgundian dynasty.
A fine representation of Hapsburg Spanish harquebusiers of the 1st half of the 17th cent. (copyright: Adrian G Vzon)
Austria, Aztecs, European Union, France, Germany, Hapsburg, Ottomans, Renaissance, Spain, Spanish, Turks, Vienna
By Periklis Deligiannis
A Spanish tercio in a modern artwork (source: Desperta Ferro). The Spanish army was the strongest European army of the mid 16th century, belonging to the Hapsburgs.
Charles V Hapsburg was the most powerful European monarch of the first half of the 16th century. The Hapsburg family/dynasty (known also as Habsburg) was able to expand rapidly its territories and to become possibly the strongest dynasty ever in the thrones of Europe, in a unique way: not so much through waging wars and conquests but mainly through dynastic marriages and choosing spouses for their brood, who would be classified today as “very wealthy brides.” Their dowries were not simply money and wealth but thrones, kingdoms and the treasures that accompanied them. But this policy of the Hapsburg dynasty does not reduce the competence and the fighting ability and spirit of the Austrian-Hapsburg imperial army, who was one of the strongest and most effective in European history. The immense Hapsburg Empire had to be supported by an army of a similar level, mostly in quality. In the period that this article is referred to, the Hapsburgs controlled not only the Austrian army, but a “multitude” of several European military forces (mercenaries in a great percentage) and mostly an imperial army stronger than the Austrian, the Spanish one.
Α modern representation of a harquebusier of the 1st half of the 17th cent. (copyright: Francisco Galiano).