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15th April 2019: Day of grief for France, the EU, Christianity and World Heritage. 20 April: Day of hope and remedy

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Photo credit: Sky News (News.sky.com)

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I waited for a few days for this tribute post on the destruction of a part of Notre Dame (the building’s spire and most of its roof had collapsed, and its upper walls had been severely damaged; extensive damage to the interior was prevented by its stone vaulted ceiling, which largely contained the burning roof as it collapsed). As a European I grieve for this misfortune but I’m also so optimistic about its instauration: Tomorrow, I am sure that the Day of Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ (according to the Catholic calendar – I happen to be an Orthodox) will also mark the start of the resurrection and total remedy of Notre Dame.

Taking into account the aspect of engineering, the damages are definitely repairable and that is the fortunate element in this misfortune for France and the EU.

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Most European men descend from a handful of Bronze Age ancestors

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Republication from the University of Leicester

Bronze Age EuropeBronze Age European warriors

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University of Leicester researchers discover a European male-specific population explosion that occurred between 2000 and 4000 years ago
  • Researchers determined DNA sequences from the Y chromosomes of 334 men belonging to 17 populations from Europe and the Middle East
  • Study shows that almost two out of three (64%) modern European men belong to just three young paternal lineage
  • Male-specific population expansion was widespread, and surprisingly recent, focusing interest on the Bronze Age

Geneticists from the University of Leicester have discovered that most European men descend from just a handful of Bronze Age forefathers, due to a ‘population explosion’ several thousand years ago.

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BYZANTINE TACTICS AND STRATEGY AGAINST WESTERN EUROPEAN ARMIES

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Byzantine vs NormanBy  Periklis    Deligiannis

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The  Byzantines  used  to  call  generally  “Franks“,  “Celts”,  “Latins”  etc,  various  Western  European  peoples  that  they  encountered  at  first  in  Italy  and  then  in  the  Balkan  Peninsula.  Finally  they  encountered  them  as  Crusaders  in  the  walls  of  Constantinople  in  1204,  losing  this  decisive  battle.  But  in  1261,  the  Byzantines  managed  to  reclaim  their  capital.

At  first  the  Byzantine  Empire  confronted  in  Italy  the  Franks  (the “genuine”  Franks  of  Gaul  and  Germany)  and  the  Longobards  (known  later  as  Lombards),  especially  during  the  6th-8th  centuries  AD.  The  fighting  tactics  and  strategy  of  these  Germanic  peoples,  which  could  not  be  compared  with  the  ‘scientificity’  of  the  Byzantine/East  Roman  tactics,  were  characterized  largely  by  the  vehemence  and  fighting  spirit  of  their  barbarian  ancestors,  but  also  by  the  lack  of  efficient  organization.

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