ancient Egypt, Ancient warfare, Egypt, pharaoh
Republication from Wiley O.Library
Tutankhamun’s iron dagger
Scholars have long discussed the introduction and spread of iron metallurgy in different civilizations. The sporadic use of iron has been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean area from the late Neolithic period to the Bronze Age. Despite the rare existence of smelted iron, it is generally assumed that early iron objects were produced from meteoritic iron. Nevertheless, the methods of working the metal, its use, and diffusion are contentious issues compromised by lack of detailed analysis. Since its discovery in 1925, the meteoritic origin of the iron dagger blade from the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian King Tutankhamun (14th C. BCE) has been the subject of debate and previous analyses yielded controversial results.
ancient Israel, Bronze Age, Canaan, Canaanites, Egypt, Iron age, Israel, Israelites, Jerusalem, Joshua, king David, Palestine, pharaoh, Philistines
Philistine swords and daggers.
Modern reconstruction of Phillistine and Canaanite battle-axes (images added by periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com).
Republication from Article Myriad
The general history of ancient Israel is, by its very nature, somewhat challenging to piece together, as the written and archaeological record is fragmentary (DeVaux & McHugh 213; Miller & Hayes 19). The limited information that is available is sourced primarily from religious texts, and the metaphorical and interpretive nature of these writings creates difficulties in establishing the accuracy of the stories as historical fact (DeVaux & McHugh 241). The same difficulties are confronted when studying the military history of ancient Israel. As DeVaux and McHugh wrote, “the very words used for military equipment are far from precise, and their meaning is often uncertain” (241). In addition, the traditional sources that are used to corroborate historical interpretations, such as archaeology, have not been helpful in terms of expanding historians’ knowledge of ancient military history in Israel.
Achaeans, Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, ναυτική Ιστορία, Military history, Mycenaean, naval history, Naval warfare, pharaoh, Ramses, Sea Peoples, Sherden, Tyrrhenians
By Periklis Deligiannis
An excellent depiction (by Igor Dzis) of the sea battle against the Sea Peoples, in the Nile Delta (Copyright: Igor Dzis 2010)
The ‘Sea Peoples’ (as mentioned in Egyptian and Greek Records – in the later as Pelasgoi, meaning exactly ‘Sea People’) was a tribal union of the Aegean and western Asia Minor, whose invasions in the eastern Mediterranean around 1229-1187 BC caused destruction of cities, states and empires (Hittite Empire) and countless victims. Shortly after the destruction of Troy VI (almost certainly the Homeric Troy) by the Achaeans (Mycenaeans), probably in the middle 13th century BC, began the disintegration of the Mycenaean world because of the prevailing famine and anarchy. These conditions are due to broader socioeconomic, political, commercial and climatic causes, occurring in Asia Minor probably earlier than the Mycenaean territories. The impressive palaces of Mycenae, Pylos and other Mycenaean citadels belong mainly to the 13th century BC, giving a false image of prosperity for them. Nevertheless it was a period of decline for the Mycenaeans, as shown by the archaeological findings.
The Achaean kings (wanaktae) were facing financial problems as their factories were producing about half the products compared with the production of the 14th century BC. They lacked skilled craftsmen and slaves, although their territories were been plagued by overcrowding. The commercial sea routes that they used were becoming more and more insecure, due to the increasing piracy and raids, and their savings had been ‘evaporated’. The monarchs and aristocrats were forced to seek new areas for raw materials, new resources, laborers and slaves, probably lands for colonization, to plunder the goods of other countries and to discover new trading routes. So they destroyed Troy, but soon after they had to abandon Greece en masse, due to the final failure. The Achaean/Mycenaean and other Aegean navigators who suffered this politico-economic collapse, turned to the open sea, and became the famous Sea Peoples already from the first half of the 13th cent. BC. The British archaeologist Elizabeth French (University of Manchester), suggested that Tiryns in Argolis, the last Mycenaean palace that was abandoned by its inhabitants (except Athens), was the base of the Sea Peoples. She supported her theory on the archaeological conclusion that Tiryns had experienced its greatest prosperity (about 1200 BC) when the other Mycenaean citadels had already turned to ruins or ‘lingered out their lives’. In my opinion, Tiryns was probably the base of the two tribes that probably gave rise to the Later ‘wave’ of the Sea Peoples, i.e. the Peleset/Philistines (Peleset/Pulasti in Egyptian, Pelasgians in Greek) and Denyen/Danuna (most probably the Greek Danaans).