A collection of bronze swords and daggers from the Arkalochori Cave, Crete, belonging to the Late Minoan Era (1700-1450 BC) before the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos (c.1450). (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete).
The Mycenaean Dendra armor (15th c. BC) belongs to the era in which the Argonaut campaign took place. On top of the armor there is a characteristic boar-tusk helmet which in this case is equipped with bronze cheek-protectors.
By Periklis Deligiannis
TABLE: LIST of the ARGONAUTS and their origins
The first two columns of the table quote the legendary heroes of the Argonaut campaign and the city of origin of each one, according to the ancient literature. I composed and added the third column in order to present the peoples/tribes who were the bearers of the traditions or cults of the respective heroes (local deities or agathodemons) or the peoples/tribes inhabiting the listed cities. Hercules is usually referred as a Theban in the ancient texts, but he was a hero/deity of the Achaeans, as possibly was Hylas as well. For this reason I place the Cadmeian people to the city of Thebes, who surely were in control of her in the time of the Argonautica.
ARGONAUT / REGION or CITY / TRIBE(People)
Jason / Iolkos /Minyans
Akastos / Iolkos / Minyans
Admetos / Pherae / Minyans
Peleus / Phthia / Achaeans
Aethalides / Alope / Achaeans
Eurytos / Alope / Achaeans
Echion / Alope / Achaeans
Eurydamas / Ktemene / Dolopes
Asterion / Peiresiae / Lapiths
Polyphemus / Larissa / Lapiths
Koronos / Gyrton / Lapiths
Iphiclos / Phylake / Minyans
Mopsus / Titaros / Lapiths
Orpheus / – / Thracians
Kalais / – / Thracians
Zetes / – / Thracians
Meleager / Kalydon / Aetolians (?)
Laokoon / Kalydon / Aetolians (?)
Iphiclos / Pleuron / Aetolians (?)
Uncategorized Achilles, Ancient warfare, Homer, Iliad, Knossos, Military history, Military technology, Military topics, Minoan civilization, Mycenae, Mycenaean, Odyssey, Pylos, Trojan War, Troy 8 Comments
A museum collection of Mycenaean bronze weapons. It includes swords (in Linear B: qi-si-po, ξίφος), some of them called ‘phasgana’ (pa-ka-na, φάσγανα), daggers, spearheads, arrowheads etc.
The archaeological evidence and the descriptions of the Homeric Epics (ignoring the symbolic divine interventions and some obvious Later Geometric elements) are the main sources regarding the Mycenaean warfare. In the Greco-Roman world, the Homeric epics were considered fundamental writings on the study of the art of war. Especially the Mycenaean/Achaean palatial tablets from Pylos, Knossos and Mycenae, provide valuable information about the military hierarchy, organization and equipment. These tablets contain public records compiled by the bureaucrats of each palace, and reveal that the military organization and the maintenance of the heavier military equipment were controlled by the state. The Mycenaean/Achaean nobles were obliged to provide military equipment and services. The tablets on military issues were titled as “orchha” (in Linear B script: o-ka, ορχα) – a word related to the ”orchos” (όρχος, military group) – which probably means the military unit and/or command.
Two modern representation of Mycenaean armored warriors.
The warrior above wears the renowned segmented suit of armour of Dendra, which was used by the warriors of the chariots. He bears the same tusk-boar helmet with an inverted crest, and the same lance ‘enchos’ (Linear II: e-ke- a, έγχεα) holding it in a ‘low handle’ way. His greaves are based on Mycenaean finds from the Peloponnesian Achaea.
The warrior below wears a relatively rare type of Mycenaean armor (Linear II: to-ra-ke, θώρακες, armor), the scale armor. He attacks with an ‘enchos’ (έγχος), the characteristic Mycenaean elongated and robust spear/lance, holding it in a ‘high handle’ way. Note his tusk-boar helmet (Linear B: ko-ru, κόρυς), which is restored with a rare item: the double crest which is based on relevant Mycenaean representations (reenactment by the Australian Historical Association Sydney Ancients). Continue reading