Apache, Araucanians, Arizona, California, Chile, Indians, Mexico, Military history, native Americans, New Mexico, Spain, Spanish-American war of Independence, Texas, United States
“El joven Lautaro”, an already classic painting by P.Subercaseaux depicts the Mapuche warlord Lautaro (who confronted the Conquistadores in the mid-16th century) along with his army and people. Note the horses and the European weapons and helmets on the right, captured from the Spaniards (credit: Wikimedia commons).
By Periklis Deligiannis
The Spanish Conquistadores and mostly the European microbes and diseases that they brought to the New World (smallpox, measles, ‘influenza’ and others) – which often were decimating the native tribes even before the physical appearance of the Spaniards themselves – managed between 1492 and 1600 to conquer huge areas of the North, Central and South America starting with the Caribbean world. Due to the spread of the European diseases, the thrashing superiority of the arms, armour and tactics of the Spaniards, their superior socio-political and financial system and other factors, just 11,000 Conquistadores more or less were proved to be enough for the subjugation of many millions of Amerindians in those years.
America, Anthropology, Canada, Caucasoids, Chukchi, DNA, Eskimos, Genetics, Indians, Mongoloids, native Americans, Russia, Siberia, USA
Republication from Pub Med
[maps added by the republisher]
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb;108(2):193-204.
Nonmetric and metric traits were studied in cranial series representing prehistoric and modern populations of America and Siberia. Frequencies of the infraorbital pattern type II (longitudinal infraorbital suture overlaid by the zygomatic bone) are universally lower in Amerindians than in Siberians. The os japonicum posterior trace, too, is much less frequent in America than in Siberia. The only two Siberian groups with an almost Amerindian combination are late third to early second millennium BC populations from Okunev and Sopka, southern Siberia. The multivariate analysis of five nonmetric facial traits and ten facial measurements in 15 cranial series reveals two independent tendencies.
America, American War of Independence, Britain, British, British Army, England, Indians, Kentucky, Long rifle, Military history, Ottawa, Pennsylvania, U.S., United States
A Huron or Ottawa warrior, 18th century. He is armed with a curved club and an American long rifle, an acquisition of trade or warfare (artwork by Don Troiani).
By Periklis Deligiannis
The Europeans (British and French) who colonized North America in the 17th to 18th centuries were forced to adapt to the martial art of a ‘primitive’ and ‘savage’ environment which was lost from Europe since Late Antiquity or the Early Middle Ages. The Native American (Indian) who was their main rival, unfortunately for them, had not read Grotius and Vattel, the founders of the rules of the noble and ‘civilized’ warfare (corresponding to the subsequent Treaty of Geneva) with which the Europeans of the 17th and 18th centuries complied. The Native American had his own original weapons and his own methods of war, the deadly warfare of the forest. Of course he did not know the pitched battles or the attack at the sound of the trumpet. The Indian bow unlike the European harquebus (and afterwards the musket) was silent, accurate, and able to unleash fast repeated arrowshots, even in wet weather (when the wick and the gunpowder of the harquebus/musket dampened and made it useless).