Ancient warfare, Arab, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, axe, bow, Bronze Age, Military, Military history, Oman, quiver, Saudi Arabia
Republication from HeritageDaily
Two quivers made of copper/bronze, during the excavation.
An exceptional collection of bronze weapons dating from the Iron Age II (900-600 BC) has been uncovered near Adam, in the Sultanate of Oman.
The remains were discovered scattered on the ground in a building belonging to what is thought to be a religious complex, during excavations carried out by the French archaeological mission in central Oman. In particular, they include two complete quivers a nd weapons made of metal, including two bows, objects that are for the most part non-functional and hitherto unknown in the Arabian Peninsula.
Ancient warfare, Arab, Arab people, Arabian Peninsula, Byzantine, Byzantine army, Byzantine Empire, Dumbarton Oaks, medieval warfare, Middle East, Military topics, Muslim
Eastern Roman/Byzantine armour (Dumbarton Oaks – cuirasses made by the armourer Dimitris Katsikis)
By Periklis Deligiannis
The military action of the Arabs, Iranians and other early Muslims against the Middle Byzantine Empire, was characterized mainly by rapid raids in Asia Minor, which were carried out in some cases by numerous troops. The scope of the invaders was widespread, reaching sometimes Propontis (Sea of Marmara). The Muslim attacks were ranging from simple raids of several hundred fighters, to massive invasions of tens of thousands. However, most attacks were aimed at looting. The reported large numbers (in some cases) of the invaders, their increased speed while advancing and their large radius of action, although these strategic elements seem incompatible from the strategic point of view, they were consistent without problems in the case of the Muslims. This was due to their mostly light military equipment, to the presence of a large percentage of cavalry among them (usually the majority of their armies in this period) and to the use of numerous camels and horses.
The camels carried supplies and people, and were particularly useful in long campaigns. The Arab horsemen were riding them in the process of a campaign, in order not to tire the horses. They rode the horses almost only in battles. They also used to bring together large numbers of horses, in order to change them and thus the animals would be rested. The camels had infinite resistance to hunger and thirst on long marches. They could traverse long distances without stopping frequently to rest and eat, thus providing a significant strategic advantage to the Muslim troops.
Arab, Byzantine, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Egypt, Greek, Greek Fire, Iran, Iranian, Medieval Greek, Syria
A Byzantine depiction of Greek fire in a miniature from the manuscript of Skylitzes.
By Periklis Deligiannis
The “Greek fire” or “sea fire” or “liquid fire” (as it was usually called by the Byzantines themselves) or “Median fire” was one of the strongest and most mysterious weapons of the Byzantine Empire (considering their composition). The Arabs used to call “naphtha” (‘naft’) their own corresponding incendiary substance for military purposes, a term which usually means the natural unrefined oil or the refined products of its distillation. The use of flammable substances in military operations on land and sea, was known to the Greeks as early as the Classical Period, who developed it especially during the Hellenistic Period. The term “Median/Medic fire” which was synonymous to the “Greek fire” in the Byzantine written sources, indicates that the Southern Iranians (Medes and Persians) used an early form of it (already from the pre-Achamenid Median period according to literary evidence). The Chinese of the same period also used their own corresponding incendiary substances. Moreover, the burning of the enemy fortifications, troops, ships and others, was one of the main military pursuits already from the high antiquity. Concerning the Iranian peoples, the development of inflammatory substances as weapons of war, was aided by the presence of abundant reserves of crude oil in Iran, Mesopotamia and the North Arabian Peninsula, areas which were under the control or the political influence of the Medes and the Persians.