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Never surrender: Native tribes of Colonial Spanish America never subdued by the Spaniards

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“El joven Lautaro”, an already classic painting by P.Subercaseaux depicts the Mapuche warlord Lautaro (who confronted the Conquistadores in the mid-16th century) along with his army and people. Note the horses and the European weapons and helmets on the right, captured from the Spaniards (credit: Wikimedia commons).

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By Periklis Deligiannis

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The Spanish Conquistadores and mostly the European microbes and diseases that they brought to the New World (smallpox, measles, ‘influenza’ and others) – which often were decimating the native tribes even before the physical appearance of the Spaniards themselves – managed between 1492 and 1600 to conquer huge areas of the North, Central and South America starting with the Caribbean world. Due to the spread of the European diseases, the thrashing superiority of the arms, armour and tactics of the Spaniards, their superior socio-political and financial system and other factors, just 11,000 Conquistadores more or less were proved to be enough for the subjugation of many millions of Amerindians in those years.

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Warhorses

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Republication from Archaeology.org

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Horses Bayeux Tapestry

(Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, New York)

Bayeux Tapestry, France, 11th c. A.D.

By the mid-second millennium B.C., the use of horses in warfare had become common throughout the Near East and Egypt. This development was made possible by advances both in the design of chariots, in particular the invention of the spoked wheel, which replaced the solid wooden wheel and reduced a chariot’s weight, and the introduction of all-metal bits, which gave chariot drivers more control over their horses. Though chariot warfare was expensive, and its effectiveness was determined by the durability of the chariots and suitability of the terrain, the vehicles became essential battlefield equipment.

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City plans of Kalhu (Nimrud), Assyrian metropolis

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Plan of the northwestern palace of Kalhu (Nimrud), one of the ancient Assyrian capitals.


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Κύπρος: Νέος χάρτης των συνόρων των αρχαίων πόλεων-κρατών της

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Είχα αναφερθεί στο παλαιότερο άρθρο μου «Οι πρώτοι Ελληνες στην Κύπρο» σε μία μικρή αβλεψία του δημιουργού του χάρτη των συνόρων των αρχαίων πόλεων-κρατών της Κύπρου ο οποίος χρησιμοποιείται σε διάφορα λήμματα της Βικιπαιδεία. Η αβλεψία ήταν η παράλειψη της πολιτικής χώρας της Κυρήνειας. Ωστόσο η αβλεψία δεν ανήκε στον Ελληνα δημιουργό επειδή ο χάρτης είναι απόδοση στα ελληνικά ενός αντίστοιχου γερμανικού χάρτη.

Μετά από το αίτημα μερικών φίλων Κυπρίων αναγνωστών να σχεδιάσω την πολιτική χώρα της Κυρήνειας, ανάρτησα τον ανωτέρω χάρτη ο οποίος την περιλαμβάνει. Ωστόσο η εργασία για τα υπόλοιπα σύνορα τα οποία σημειώνονται στον χάρτη έγινε από τον αρχικό δημιουργό του.

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