Byzantine, Crusaders, Crusades, medieval warfare, Military architecture, military engineering, Military history, Saracens, structural engineering, Syria, Templar Order, templars
Republication from Militaryarchitecture.com
Plan of Tartous citadel and fortified city.
Although largely famous today for its role as a Templar fortress during the time of the Crusades, the site had been equally renowned in antiquity for its strategic and military importance. Tartous was originally founded by the Phoenicians to complement the more secure but the less accessible settlement on the island of Arwad. For a long time it served a secondary role to Arwad, itself a major centre in Seleucid and Roman times. As a matter fact its classical name of Ataradus (meaning ‘anti-Aradus’ or ‘the town facing Aradus’ or Arwad) reflected this secondary role.
1453, Αλωση, Βυζάντιο, Βυζαντινοί, Κωνσαντινούπολη, Τουρκία, Τούρκοι, Military topics
Τοῦρκος δημοσιογράφος: “Κάθε χρόνο τέτοια ἐποχή, µέ τὶς γιορτὲς πού κάνετε, διακηρύσσετε ὅτι: «αὐτὰ τὰ μέρη δὲν ἦταν δικὰ µας, ἤρθαµε ἐκ τῶν ὑστέρων καὶ τὰ πήραμε µἐ τὴ βία». Μήπως στὸ ὑποσυνείδητό σας ὑπάρχει ὁ φόβος ὅτι ἡ Πόλη κάποια µέρα θὰ δοθεῖ πίσω;”
Μὲ ἕνα ἐντυπωσιακὰ εἰλικρινὲς ἄρθρο, ποὺ δημοσιεύτηκε το 2009 στὴν ἔγκυρη ἐφημερίδα SABAH, ἀπὸ τὸν Engin Ardic, γνωστὸ συγγραφέα καὶ δημοσιογράφο στὴν Τουρκία στηλιτεύεται ὁ Τουρκικὸς τρόπος ἑορτασμοῦ τῆς πτώσης της Κωνσταντινούπολης στὶς 29 Μαΐου. Στὸ ἐν λόγω ἄρθρο ὁ συγγραφέας παρουσιάζει µια σειρὰ ἀπὸ ἀλήθειες γιὰ τὶς ὁποῖες τὸ Κεµαλικὸ καθεστὼς ἐδῶ καὶ δεκαετίες προσπαθεῖ νὰ καταπνίξει. Ἀξίζει νὰ παρατεθεῖ μεταφρασμένο τὸ πλῆρες κείμενο, ἀπὸ τὴν συγκεκριμένη διεύθυνση τῆς Τουρκικῆς ἐφημερίδας Sabah τὸ ὁποῖο ἔχει ὡς ἑξῆς:
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Ancient warfare, Crete, Knossos, Military history, Military technology, Military topics, Minoan civilization, Minoans, Mycenae, Mycenaean, Trojan War
A collection of bronze swords and daggers from the Arkalochori Cave, Crete, belonging to the Late Minoan Era (1700-1450 BC) before the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos (c.1450). (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete).
Asia, China, Finns, Mongolia, Mongols, Russia, Siberia, Tungus, Turks
Republication from BioRxiv
Fig.1. Admixture results for K=6 showing the approximate location of the populations included in this study. The names of the populations are coloured according to their
linguistic affiliation as follows: red = Mongolic, blue = Turkic, dark green = North
Tungusic, light green = South Tungusic (Hezhen) and Manchu (Xibo), brown = Ugric,
orange = Samoyedic, black = Yenisseic, azure = Yukaghirs, maroon = Chukotko-
Kamchatkan, pink = Eskimo-Aleut, purple = Indo-European, teal = Sino-Tibetan and
Japonic. Where two subgroups are from the same geographic location, only one of the subgroups is shown (full results are presented in Fig.S1). Note that for reasons of space the location of the two distinct Yakut subgroups does not correspond to their true location. Each color indicates a different ancestry component referred to in the text as “(light) green” or European, “yellow” or Western Siberian, “blue” or Central Siberian, “pink” or Asian, “red” or Far Eastern, “dark green” or Eskimo.
Ancient warfare, Decius, Germanic peoples, Germanics, Goths, Greece, Greek, Heruls, Military history, Thermopylae
[artwork by Igor Dzis]
Fragments of an ancient Greek text telling of an invasion of Greece by the Goths during the third century A.D. have been discovered in the Austrian National Library. The text includes a battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae.
Researchers used spectral imaging to enhance the fragments, making it possible to read them. The analysis suggests the fragments were copied in the 11th century A.D. and are from a text that was written in the third-century A.D. by an Athens writer named Dexippus. During Dexippus’ life, Greece (part of the Roman Empire) and Rome struggled to repel a series of Gothic invasions.
Architecture, engineering, France, French, Malta, Military architecture, military engineer, military engineering
Militaryarchitecture.com presents the first in an exclusive series of lectures by Dr. Stephen C. Spiteri on Military Architecture and Fortification.
Αθήνα, Γότθοι, Δέξιππος, Ελλάς, Θερμοπύλες, Θεσσαλονίκη
Το πέρασμα στις Θερμοπύλες. Εκεί για δεύτερη φορά στην ιστορία οι εισβολείς βρήκαν σκληρή αντίσταση
Μεσαιωνικό έγγραφο αποκαλύπτει ότι οι γερμανοί πολεμιστές επιτέθηκαν πρώτα κατά της Θεσσαλονίκης και όταν αποκρούστηκαν στράφηκαν κατά της Αθήνας
Η μελέτη «θραυσμάτων» από ένα έγγραφο του Μεσαίωνα αποκαλύπτει μια άγνωστη μάχη που δόθηκε στις Θερμοπύλες λίγους αιώνες μετά τη θρυλική μάχη των Ελλήνων με επικεφαλής τους Σπαρτιάτες απέναντι στους Πέρσες. Πρόκειται για μια αναμέτρηση ανάμεσα σε Αθηναίους και Γότθους που δόθηκε τον 3ο αιώνα μ.Χ. Οι ερευνητές χρησιμοποίησαν τεχνικές φασματικής απεικόνισης για να διαβάσουν το κείμενο στο παραπάνω θραύσμα, το οποίο περιγράφει τον λόγο του Μαριανού στην μάχη των Θερμοπυλών του 3ου αι. μ.Χ.
Ancient warfare, Germanic peoples, Germanics, Goths, Greece, Greek, Heruls, Military history, palimpsest, Thermopylae
Republication from Τhe History blog
Germanic warriors battling Romans (Teutoburg Forest). In my view, the Greek combatants who confronted them would have been armed like the earlier Roman auxilia of the 2nd century AD (in the mid-3rd century AD there were no longer auxilia from the Empire’s populace because they were all citizens) bearing chain mail armour, scuta (thyreos-shields in Greek) and heavy Roman swords but with helmets of traditional Hellenic types (image and comment added by periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com)
The leaves of books in the Middle Ages were made of parchment and vellum, created from animal skins in an expensive and time-consuming craft. It was so costly that scribes often recycled pages from earlier books, removing the ink to create a blank sheet. In the early Middle Ages, the ink was washed off and over time the shadow of former writing reappeared like a pentimento in a painting. In the later Middle Ages, they used pumice powder to scrape the ink away for good.
Baltic crusades, Baltic Sea, Crusaders, Crusades, Germans, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Poles, Teutonic Order
Source: Stanford University
The Teutonic Order’s Marienburg Castle, Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, now Malbork, Poland
By Melissa Pandika
Stanford Assistant Professor Krish Seetah and Reading University student Rose Calis analyze animal bones in the basement of Riga Castle, Latvia. (Photo: Aleks Pluskowski)
Stanford researchers have discovered that pagan villages plundered by medieval knights during the little-known Baltic Crusades had some problems in common with the modern-day global village.
Among them: deforestation, asymmetric warfare and species extinction.
According to a research paper published in Science, a project investigating the Baltic Crusades’ profound environmental legacy could yield valuable insight into colonialism, cultural changes and ecological exploitation – relevant issues not only throughout history, but especially in today’s increasingly globalized society.
The researchers, including professors at Stanford and in Europe, are drawing from disciplines as disparate as history and chemistry to analyze their findings, which they’ve already begun synthesizing into a database of unprecedented depth and scope.
Their study spans the years from the 12th century to the 16th century, when the Teutonic Order, a Germanic brotherhood of Christian knights, waged war against the last indigenous pagan societies in Europe in a region that includes modern-day Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and parts of Sweden and Russia.
Ancient warfare, Basques, Carthage, Celtiberians, Chalcidian, helmet, Iberian Peninsula, Lusitania, Military history, Portugal, Portuguese, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish
Views of the Celtiberian helmet of Chalcidian type. Its crest-holder is of Italian design.
By Periklis Deligiannis
Actually, this text concerns an item from my study: The Greek influence on the weaponry and armoury of the Iberians, Celtiberians, Turdetani and other ancient peoples of the Iberian Peninsula.
The contacts of the Aegean seafarers with the Iberian Peninsula were ancient enough, ever since the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, although they were very limited. After the dissolution of the Mycenaean world and in general the Eastern Mediterranean world due to the economic collapse and the invasions of the Sea Peoples (13th-12th centuries BC), the relations between the Greeks and the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula were interrupted for many centuries until the Archaic Period (700-479 BC). In the Early Archaic Era navigators from Samos, Phocaea, Zakynthos, Massalia and other Greek cities, “rediscovered” the Iberian peninsula and restored trade relations with their peoples. Mostly Phocaea and her daughter-city Masallia, took the lead in establishing Greek colonies on the eastern coast of Spain, that is in the ancient ethnic territory of the Iberians. Although earlier in the 20th century it was thought among the scholars that the Iberians were the largest ethnic group of the peninsula, actually it was proved that they constituted a small portion of the population, living on the northeast coast of Spain and the immediate hinterland. The modern Catalans are the main descendants of the Iberians.