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Crusader Military engineering: The Templar Fortress of Tartous

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Republication  from Militaryarchitecture.com

6546549Plan of Tartous citadel and fortified city.

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Although largely famous today for its role as a Templar fortress during the time of the Crusades, the site had been equally renowned in antiquity for its strategic and military importance. Tartous was originally founded by the Phoenicians to complement the more secure but the less accessible settlement on the island of Arwad. For a long time it served a secondary role to Arwad, itself a major centre in Seleucid and Roman times. As a matter fact its classical name of Ataradus (meaning ‘anti-Aradus’ or ‘the town facing Aradus’ or Arwad) reflected this secondary role.

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Αρθρο Τούρκου δημοσιογράφου στην εφημερίδα Sabah για την Αλωση της Πολης (1453)

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Agia-Sofia-in-Constantinople-2-620x396

Τορκος  δημοσιογράφος:  “Κάθε  χρόνο  τέτοια  ποχή,  µέ  τς  γιορτς  πού  κάνετε,  διακηρύσσετε  τι:  «ατ  τ  μέρη  δν  ταν  δικ  µας,  ρθαµε  κ  τν  στέρων  κα  τ  πήραμε  µ  τ  βία».  Μήπως  στ  ποσυνείδητό  σας  πάρχει    φόβος  τι    Πόλη  κάποια  µέρα  θ  δοθε  πίσω;”

Μ  να  ντυπωσιακ  ελικρινς  ρθρο,  πο  δημοσιεύτηκε  το  2009  στν  γκυρη  φημερίδα  SABAH,  π  τν  Engin  Ardic,  γνωστ  συγγραφέα  κα  δημοσιογράφο  στν  Τουρκία  στηλιτεύεται    Τουρκικς  τρόπος  ορτασμο  τς  πτώσης  της  Κωνσταντινούπολης  στς  29  Μαΐου.  Στ  ν  λόγω  ρθρο    συγγραφέας  παρουσιάζει  µια  σειρ  π  λήθειες  γι  τς  ποες  τ  Κεµαλικ  καθεστς  δ  κα  δεκαετίες  προσπαθε  ν  καταπνίξει.  ξίζει  ν  παρατεθε  μεταφρασμένο  τ  πλρες  κείμενο,  π  τν  συγκεκριμένη  διεύθυνση  τς  Τουρκικς  φημερίδας  Sabah  τ  ποο  χει  ς  ξς:

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War was central to Europe’s first civilisation (Minoan)- contrary to popular belief

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Minoan swords1

A collection of bronze swords and daggers from the Arkalochori Cave, Crete, belonging to the Late Minoan Era (1700-1450 BC) before the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos (c.1450). (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete).


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Admixture history and recent southern origins of Siberian populations

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Republication from BioRxiv

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siberia

Fig.1. Admixture results for K=6 showing the approximate location of the populations  included in this study. The names of the populations are coloured according to their
linguistic affiliation as follows: red = Mongolic, blue = Turkic, dark green = North
Tungusic, light green = South Tungusic (Hezhen) and Manchu (Xibo), brown = Ugric,
orange = Samoyedic, black = Yenisseic, azure = Yukaghirs, maroon = Chukotko-
Kamchatkan, pink = Eskimo-Aleut, purple = Indo-European, teal = Sino-Tibetan and
Japonic. Where two subgroups are from the same geographic location, only one of the subgroups is shown (full results are presented in Fig.S1). Note that for reasons of space the location of the two distinct Yakut subgroups does not correspond to their true location. Each color indicates a different ancestry component referred to in the text as “(light) green” or European, “yellow” or Western Siberian, “blue” or Central Siberian, “pink” or Asian,  “red” or Far Eastern, “dark green” or Eskimo.

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Irina Pugach, Rostislav Matveev, Viktor Spitsyn, Sergey Makarov, Innokentiy Novgorodov, Vladimir Osakovsky, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf

Goths vs. Greeks: Epic Ancient Battle Revealed

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Another  Thermopylae[artwork by Igor Dzis]

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Republication from Live Science

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By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor

Fragments of an ancient Greek text telling of an invasion of Greece by the Goths during the third century A.D. have been discovered in the Austrian National Library. The text includes a battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae.

Researchers used spectral imaging to enhance the fragments, making it possible to read them. The analysis suggests the fragments were copied in the 11th century A.D. and are from a text that was written in the third-century A.D. by an Athens writer named Dexippus.  During Dexippus’ life, Greece (part of the Roman Empire) and Rome struggled to repel a series of Gothic invasions.

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French Military Architecture in Malta

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Source: Militaryarchitecture.com

Militaryarchitecture.com presents the first in an exclusive series of lectures by Dr. Stephen C. Spiteri on Military Architecture and Fortification.

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Η άγνωστη μάχη των Θερμοπυλών, όταν οι Αθηναίοι πολέμησαν τους Γότθους εισβολείς.

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https://periklisdeligiannis.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/f242f-thermopylae-pass.jpg?w=500

Το πέρασμα στις Θερμοπύλες. Εκεί για δεύτερη φορά στην ιστορία οι εισβολείς βρήκαν σκληρή αντίσταση

Μεσαιωνικό έγγραφο αποκαλύπτει ότι οι γερμανοί πολεμιστές επιτέθηκαν πρώτα κατά της Θεσσαλονίκης και όταν αποκρούστηκαν στράφηκαν κατά της Αθήνας
Η μελέτη «θραυσμάτων» από ένα έγγραφο του Μεσαίωνα αποκαλύπτει μια άγνωστη μάχη που δόθηκε στις Θερμοπύλες λίγους αιώνες μετά τη θρυλική μάχη των Ελλήνων με επικεφαλής τους Σπαρτιάτες απέναντι στους Πέρσες. Πρόκειται για μια αναμέτρηση ανάμεσα σε Αθηναίους και Γότθους που δόθηκε τον 3ο αιώνα μ.Χ. Οι ερευνητές χρησιμοποίησαν τεχνικές φασματικής απεικόνισης για να διαβάσουν το κείμενο στο παραπάνω θραύσμα, το οποίο περιγράφει τον λόγο του Μαριανού στην μάχη των Θερμοπυλών του 3ου αι. μ.Χ.

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Another Battle of Thermopylae found in palimpsest

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Republication from Τhe History blog

GermanicsGermanic warriors battling Romans (Teutoburg Forest). In my view, the Greek combatants who confronted them would have been armed like the earlier Roman auxilia of the 2nd century AD (in the mid-3rd century AD there were no longer auxilia from the Empire’s populace because they were all citizens) bearing chain mail armour, scuta (thyreos-shields in Greek) and heavy Roman swords but with helmets of traditional Hellenic types (image and comment added by periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com)

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The leaves of books in the Middle Ages were made of parchment and vellum, created from animal skins in an expensive and time-consuming craft. It was so costly that scribes often recycled pages from earlier books, removing the ink to create a blank sheet. In the early Middle Ages, the ink was washed off and over time the shadow of former writing reappeared like a pentimento in a painting. In the later Middle Ages, they used pumice powder to scrape the ink away for good.

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Stanford researchers find clues to the Baltic Crusades in animal bones, horses and the extinct aurochs

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Source: Stanford University

Marienburg MalborkCastle built by Teutonic knightsThe Teutonic Order’s Marienburg Castle, Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, now Malbork, Poland

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By Melissa Pandika

 

Stanford Assistant Professor Krish Seetah and Reading University student Rose Calis analyze animal bones in the basement of Riga Castle, Latvia. (Photo: Aleks Pluskowski)

Stanford researchers have discovered that pagan villages plundered by medieval knights during the little-known Baltic Crusades had some problems in common with the modern-day global village.

Among them: deforestation, asymmetric warfare and species extinction.

According to a research paper published in Science, a project investigating the Baltic Crusades’ profound environmental legacy could yield valuable insight into colonialism, cultural changes and ecological exploitation – relevant issues not only throughout history, but especially in today’s increasingly globalized society.

The researchers, including professors at Stanford and in Europe, are drawing from disciplines as disparate as history and chemistry to analyze their findings, which they’ve already begun synthesizing into a database of unprecedented depth and scope.

Their study spans the years from the 12th century to the 16th century, when the Teutonic Order, a Germanic brotherhood of Christian knights, waged war against the last indigenous pagan societies in Europe in a region that includes modern-day Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and parts of Sweden and Russia.

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A case of Hellenic influence on the ancient Iberian weaponry: a Celtiberian helmet of Chalcidian design

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03 Views of the Celtiberian helmet of Chalcidian type. Its crest-holder is of Italian design.
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By Periklis  Deligiannis

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Actually, this text concerns an item from my study: The Greek influence on the weaponry and armoury of the Iberians, Celtiberians, Turdetani and other ancient peoples of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The contacts of the Aegean seafarers with the Iberian Peninsula were ancient enough, ever since the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, although they were very limited. After the dissolution of the Mycenaean world and in general the Eastern Mediterranean world due to the economic collapse and the invasions of the Sea Peoples (13th-12th centuries BC), the relations between the Greeks and the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula were interrupted for many centuries until the Archaic Period (700-479 BC). In the Early Archaic Era navigators from Samos, Phocaea, Zakynthos, Massalia and other Greek cities, “rediscovered” the Iberian peninsula and restored trade relations with their peoples. Mostly Phocaea and her daughter-city Masallia, took the lead in establishing Greek colonies on the eastern coast of Spain, that is in the ancient ethnic territory of the Iberians. Although earlier in the 20th century it was thought among the scholars that the Iberians were the largest ethnic group of the peninsula, actually it was proved that they constituted a small portion of the population, living on the northeast coast of Spain and the immediate hinterland. The modern Catalans are the main descendants of the Iberians.

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