Home

Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

1 Comment

001.

002

A very interesting ethno-political map of Britain in AD 530 (above) based on the archaeological map below, the literary sources and other data (maps credit: Home Page for Howard Wiseman in Griffith Univ., maps added by periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com)

.

Republication from Nature.com

 

 

Stephan Schiffels, Wolfgang Haak, Pirita Paajanen,  Bastien Llamas, Elizabeth Popescu, Louise Loe, Rachel Clarke, Alice Lyons, Richard Mortimer, Duncan Sayer, Chris Tyler-Smith,   Alan Cooper & Richard Durbin

Nature Communications7,  Article number:10408  doi:10.1038/ncomms10408

 

British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

More

Advertisements

Evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations

Leave a comment

Republication from biorxiv.org

67984563454[Map credit: armenica.org]

.

Marc Haber, Massimo Mezzavilla, Yali Xue, David Comas, Paolo Gasparini, Pierre Zalloua, Chris Tyler-Smith

.

The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain underrepresented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War One. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them to 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BCE, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East.

More

Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration

2 Comments

 

britain 6th cent.

Britain in the 6th century (suggested  or approximate boundariess). The Anglo-Saxon principalities or tribes are noted in red, the Briton principalities in black, the Irish in blue and the Pictish in brown. The Attecotti of the northern edge being ethnologically indecipherable, are noted in their own colour. In the 7th cent., the Angles of Bernicia, Deira and Lindsey were united in the large kingdom of Northumbria.  Bernicia, Deira and then  Nortumbria destroyed and conquered the Briton kdms of Bryneich, Ebrauc, Elmet and South Rheged. Mercia conquered South Elmet and a part of Luitcoyt. The territory of Lundein (London) was annexed mainly by Essex (East Saxons) and East Anglia, and Regia by Sussex (South Saxons). Finally Wessex joined by the Gewissae (possibly descendants of Germanic soldiers of Rome), managed to destroy and annex the Briton kdms of Glouvia, Cerin and Atrebatia, pressing hard towards Dumnonia (possibly Arthur’s homeland). A part of the Dumnonii had already fled to Armorica founding the colony of Domnonee. It seems that the principality of Kerrnev in Armorica was also a Briton colony originated from Cerniw of Cornwall. The name of Leon in Armorica probably originates from a Celtic verbal corruption of the Latin ‘Legion’ but it cannot be defined if this principality had Briton origins. The Scots (Irish) of Dal Riada had already colonized modern Argyll pressing the Pictish principalities (map and caption added by P. Deligiannis ).

.

Republication from mbe.oxfordjournals.org

.

Michael E. Weale*,1, Deborah A. Weiss,1, Rolf F. Jager*‡, Neil Bradman* and  Mark G. Thomas*

Abstract

British history contains several periods of major cultural change. It remains controversial as to how much these periods coincided with substantial immigration from continental Europe, even for those that occurred most recently. In this study, we examine genetic data for evidence of male immigration at particular times into Central England and North Wales. To do this, we used 12 biallelic polymorphisms and six microsatellite markers to define high-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes in a sample of 313 males from seven towns located along an east-west transect from East Anglia to North Wales. The Central English towns were genetically very similar, whereas the two North Welsh towns differed significantly both from each other and from the Central English towns. When we compared our data with an additional 177 samples collected in Friesland and Norway, we found that the Central English and Frisian samples were statistically indistinguishable. Using novel population genetic models that incorporate both mass migration and continuous gene flow, we conclude that these striking patterns are best explained by a substantial migration of Anglo-Saxon Y chromosomes into Central England (contributing 50%–100% to the gene pool at that time) but not into North Wales.

More

Βαρθολομαίος Μητρόπουλος (Μίτρε), πρώτος Πρόεδρος της Αργεντινής (Β΄ μέρος)

1 Comment

Mitre 1861Ο Βαρθολομαίος Μίτρε το 1861 με τη στολή του στρατηγού του Μπουένος Αϊρες.

.

Π. Δεληγιάννης

.

Συνέχεια από το Α΄ Μέρος

            Το 1852 ο Μίτρε επέστρεψε στην Αργεντινή μετά την ανατροπή του Ρόζας όταν εκείνος ηττήθηκε από τον Χοσέ ντε Ουρκίθα στην μάχη του Κασέρος. Ο Μίτρε κατέστη γρήγορα ένας από τους ηγέτες οι οποίοι επικράτησαν στην επαρχία του Μπουένος Αϊρες και πρωτοστάτησε στην απόσχιση της από την Αργεντινή Συνομοσπονδία το ίδιο έτος. Σε αυτή τη φάση, ο Μητρόπουλος ήλθε αντιμέτωπος με τους φεντεραλιστές και συντάχθηκε με τους συγκεντρωτικούς. Στην ανεξάρτητη Δημοκρατία του Μπουένος Αϊρες (1852-1861) ανέλαβε υψηλά πολιτικά αξιώματα και ελαβε τον στρατιωτικό βαθμό του στρατηγού. Το 1853 ήταν από εκείνους που απέρριψαν το Σύνταγμα το οποίο προσέφερε ο Ουρκίθα για την επανενοποίηση της χώρας.

More

Βαρθολομαίος Μητρόπουλος (Μίτρε), πρώτος Πρόεδρος της Αργεντινής (Α΄μέρος)

1 Comment

Mitre at age33, 1854Ο Μητρόπουλος το 1854.

.

Π. Δεληγιάννης

.

            Με αυτό το άρθρο, συνεχίζω τα αφιερώματα σε Ελληνες οι οποίοι έχουν επιτύχει πολλά έξω από τα μητροπολιτικά όρια, συχνά πέρα από τους ωκεανούς. Η Ισπανική αντιβασιλεία του Ρίο ντε λα Πλάτα αποτέλεσε τη βάση από την οποία σχηματίσθηκαν αργότερα τα κράτη της Αργεντινής, της Ουρουγουάης, της Παραγουάης και της Βολιβίας (Ανω Περού). Η αντιβασιλεία ιδρύθηκε το 1776 όταν η Διοίκηση του Λα Πλάτα αποσπάσθηκε διοικητικά από το ισπανικό Περού λόγω της αύξησης του πληθυσμού της και κυρίως για λόγους άμυνας έναντι της επιβουλής των Βρετανών και άλλων ευρωπαϊκών αποικιακών δυνάμεων. Αργότερα έφθασαν στις εκβολές του μεγάλου ποταμού Λα Πλάτα οι πρώτοι Ελληνες εμποροναυτικοί από την Υδρα και σε λίγο και από τις Σπέτσες. Αλλά η παρουσία Ελλήνων αποίκων από την Βόρειο Ηπειρο, στη χώρα που έμελε αργότερα να ονομασθεί «Αργεντινή» ήταν παλαιότερη όπως θα δούμε στη συνέχεια. Η κατάληψη της μητροπολιτικής Ισπανίας από τις δυνάμεις του Ναπολέοντα έδωσε την ευκαιρία στους Ισπανοαμερικανούς πατριώτες να επαναστατήσουν αρχικά εναντίον του βασιλιά της Ισπανίας αλλά αργότερα και εναντίον κάθε μορφής ισπανικού ελέγχου.

            Το 1810 ο Μιχαήλ Σαμουήλ Σπύρου από τη Μυτιλήνη ή τις Σπέτσες βρήκε τη χώρα σε επαναστατικό αναβρασμό όταν έφθασε εκεί με το πλοίο του και τα δύο αδέρφια του. Το επόμενο έτος έφθασε στο Λα Πλάτα και ο Υδραίος Νικόλαος Κολμανιάτης (γνωστός αργότερα ως “Nicolas Jorge”) με το πλοίο και το πλήρωμα του. Οι δύο Ελληνες πλοίαρχοι βρίσκονταν σε αναζήτηση νέας πατρίδας και σύντομα ενώθηκαν με τους επαναστάτες. Ηταν ανάμεσα σε εκείνους που επιφορτίσθηκαν με την οργάνωση και τη στελέχωση του επαναστατικού ναυτικού του Λα Πλάτα το οποίο τέθηκε υπό τις διαταγές του Ιρλανδού ναυάρχου Ουίλιαμ Μπράουν.

More

Roman engineering II: The Roman Temple of Évora (Portugal)

Leave a comment

Republication from Following hadrian (by Carole Raddato)

The Roman Temple of Évora (Templo romano de Évora), also referred to as the Templo de Diana (although there is no basis in fact for this designation) is an ancient temple in the historic city of Évora, Portugal. The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, which was included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

In 57 BC, the city was conquered by the Romans who renamed it Liberalitas Julia and expanded it into a walled town. The temple is believed to have been built around the first century AD and was probably erected in honour of emperor Augustus. It was built in the main public square (forum) of Liberalitas Julia.

The temple has undergone numerous changes throughout history. What remains of this structure today is the podium, almost completely preserved and made of granite blocks, an intact colonnade along its northern facade consisting of six columns, four columns to the east and four columns on its western facade.

The Roman Temple of Évora, overview from the north-western corner, Ebora, Lusitania, Portugal © Carole Raddato

The Roman Temple of Évora, the northern facade consisting of six columns
© Carole Raddato

[image not to  be shown here: visit the original source]

The Roman Temple of Évora
© Carole Raddato

More

First non-utilitarian weapons found in the Arabian Peninsula

Leave a comment

Republication from HeritageDaily

56474574Two quivers made of copper/bronze, during the excavation.

An exceptional collection of bronze weapons dating from the Iron Age II (900-600 BC) has been uncovered near Adam, in the Sultanate of Oman.

The remains were discovered scattered on the ground in a building belonging to what is thought to be a religious complex, during excavations carried out by the French archaeological mission in central Oman. In particular, they include two complete quivers a nd weapons made of metal, including two bows, objects that are for the most part non-functional and hitherto unknown in the Arabian Peninsula.

 

More

Most European men descend from a handful of Bronze Age ancestors

3 Comments

Republication from the University of Leicester

Bronze Age EuropeBronze Age European warriors

.

University of Leicester researchers discover a European male-specific population explosion that occurred between 2000 and 4000 years ago
  • Researchers determined DNA sequences from the Y chromosomes of 334 men belonging to 17 populations from Europe and the Middle East
  • Study shows that almost two out of three (64%) modern European men belong to just three young paternal lineage
  • Male-specific population expansion was widespread, and surprisingly recent, focusing interest on the Bronze Age

Geneticists from the University of Leicester have discovered that most European men descend from just a handful of Bronze Age forefathers, due to a ‘population explosion’ several thousand years ago.

More

MIDDLE BYZANTINE FIGHTING TACTICS AGAINST MUSLIM ARMIES

2 Comments

Byzantine armor(Dumbarton  oaks)

Eastern Roman/Byzantine  armour (Dumbarton Oaks – cuirasses made by  the  armourer  Dimitris  Katsikis)

.

By  Periklis    Deligiannis

.

The  military  action  of  the  Arabs,  Iranians  and  other  early  Muslims  against  the  Middle  Byzantine  Empire,  was  characterized  mainly  by  rapid  raids  in  Asia Minor,  which  were  carried  out  in  some  cases  by  numerous  troops.  The  scope  of  the  invaders  was  widespread,  reaching  sometimes  Propontis  (Sea of Marmara).  The  Muslim  attacks  were  ranging  from  simple  raids  of  several  hundred  fighters,  to  massive  invasions  of  tens  of  thousands.  However,  most  attacks  were  aimed  at  looting.  The  reported  large  numbers  (in  some  cases)  of  the  invaders,  their  increased  speed  while  advancing  and  their  large  radius  of  action,  although  these  strategic  elements  seem  incompatible  from  the  strategic  point  of  view,  they  were  consistent  without  problems  in  the  case  of  the  Muslims.  This  was  due  to  their  mostly  light  military  equipment,  to  the  presence  of  a  large  percentage  of  cavalry  among  them  (usually  the  majority  of  their  armies  in  this  period)  and  to  the  use  of  numerous  camels  and  horses.

The  camels  carried  supplies  and  people,  and  were  particularly  useful  in  long  campaigns.  The  Arab  horsemen  were  riding  them  in  the  process  of  a  campaign,  in  order  not  to  tire  the  horses.  They  rode  the  horses  almost  only  in  battles.  They  also  used  to  bring  together  large  numbers  of  horses,  in  order  to  change  them  and  thus  the  animals  would  be  rested.  The  camels  had  infinite  resistance  to  hunger  and  thirst  on  long  marches.  They  could  traverse  long  distances  without  stopping  frequently  to  rest  and  eat,  thus  providing  a  significant  strategic  advantage  to  the  Muslim  troops.

Continue reading