Republished from biorxiv
We estimate mixture proportions using a method that gives unbiased estimates even without an accurate model for the relationships between the test populations and the outgroup populations (Supplementary Information section 9). Population samples are grouped according to chronology (ancient) and Yamnaya ancestry (present-day humans).
a Proposed routes of migration by early farmers into Europe ~9,000−7000 years ago. b, Resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry during the Middle Neolithic 7,000−5,000 years ago. c, Arrival of steppe ancestry in central Europe during the Late Neolithic ~4,500 years ago. White arrows indicate the two possible scenarios of the arrival of Indo-European language groups. Symbols of samples are identical to those in Fig. 1.