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Samurai Horse armour and equipment (part II)

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Horse chanfron in the form of a dragon

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By Periklis Deligiannis
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CONTINUED FROM PART I

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Samurai Horse armour and equipment (part I)

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aSaddle and horse armour of a mounted Samurai.
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By Periklis Deligiannis
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The armour and equipment of the Samurai’s horses are equally impressive with the respective items of the warriors themselves. The specific military equipment of rider and horse originates from continental Asia, specifically from the nomads of the Eurasian steppe who passed it to the Chinese and the Koreans when the latter founded armored cavalry units of the nomadic type, and later passed it in their turn to Japan. The well known Chinese Empires and also the Korean states (especially the kingdoms of Baekje, Silla and the Gaya confederacy) played an important role in this conveyance. But already from the beginning the Japanese developed differently the original Continental prototypes, following a specific style of their own; I guess because of their insular isolation and their permanent tendency to be self-sufficient. Thereby they totally developed their own types of lamellar and scale armour, stirrups, bridle, chanfrons and other equipment for the riding and the protection of their horses in battle. However Chinese influence is evident, particularly in the chanfrons in which the Japanese were usually giving the form of a dragon, specifically in the Chinese style.
This is a photographic collection of horse armour, stirrups, bridle, chanfrons and other horse equipment of the Samurais mainly of the Muromachi (Ashikaga) and Edo periods of the Japanese history.

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The Indo-European Cradle from a Linguistic and Archaeological standpoint

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Republication from the Annual Review of Linguistics

 

The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives

Vol. 1: 199-219 (Volume publication date January 2015)
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812

David W. Anthony1 and Don Ringe2
1Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York
2Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
ABSTRACT
Archaeological evidence and linguistic evidence converge in support of an origin of Indo-European languages on the Pontic-Caspian steppes around 4,000 years BCE. The evidence is so strong that arguments in support of other hypotheses should be reexamined.

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Figure 1  Wheel terms found in Indo-European language branches. Modified with permission from Anthony (1995).

 

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The figure-of-eight shield and other shield types of the Bronze Age Aegean (part II)

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Reconstruction of the so-called “Shield frieze” fresco in the Old Palace at Tiryns with depicted figure-of-eight shields (photo credit: Metropolitan Museum of Art)
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By Periklis Deligiannis
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CONTINUED FROM PART I
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Most scholars believe that also the Dipylon shield of the Geometric period (10th-8th centuries BC) came from the evolution of the full-body figure-of-eight shield. The Dipylon shield, which was named after the Athenian Dipylon gate where the first pottery with images of the former, was discovered, had much in common with the figure-of-eight shield. It had a large size, covering the warrior from the chin to the knees. It was made of wicker branches and leather, without excluding its further enhancing with more wooden parts. It was curved to a degree that “encapsulated” the body of the warrior, like the figure-of-eight shield. In the middle of its surface, it had two semicircular notches which facilitated the handling of the spear and the sword. But many other scholars believe that the Dipylon and the Boeotian shield came from the main Hittite type of shield which had roughly the same shape.

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The figure-of-eight shield and other shield types of the Bronze Age Aegean (part I)

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Akrotiri tower shieldsHeavy spearmen with tower shields depicted in a fresco from Akroteri in Thera. Minoan period. Note the different colorful skins covering the surface of their shields.
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Reconstructed Mycenaean fresco of a figure of eight shieldReconstructed Mycenaean fresco of a figure-of-eight shield
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By Periklis Deligiannis
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In the Minoan and Early Mycenaean period (until the 14th century BC) the main types of shield (called σάκος in Mycenean Greek) used by the early spearmen of the Aegean was the ‘tower’ shield and the figure-of-eight shield, both invented in Minoan Crete as it is demonstrated archaeologically.

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Ancient babies boost Bering land bridge layover

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Republication from University of Utah News

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PHOTO CREDIT: Ben Potter, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

This map shows the location of the Upward Sun River site in Alaska where the remains of two infants were found in an 11,500-year-old burial. A new University of Utah analysis shows the infants belong to two genetic groups or lineages known as B2 and C1. The maps shows other Native American groups throughout the Americas that are part of the same lineages.

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University of Utah scientists deciphered maternal genetic material from two babies buried together at an Alaskan campsite 11,500 years ago. They found the infants had different mothers and were the northernmost known kin to two lineages of Native Americans found farther south throughout North and South America.

By showing that both genetic lineages lived so far north so long ago, the study supports the “Beringian standstill model.” It says that Native Americans descended from people who migrated from Asia to Beringia – the vast Bering land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska – and then spent up to 10,000 years in Beringia before moving rapidly into the Americas beginning at least 15,000 years ago.

“These infants are the earliest human remains in northern North America, and they carry distinctly Native American lineages,” says University of Utah anthropology professor Dennis O’Rourke, senior author of the paper set for online publication the week of Oct. 26 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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